Latest news from those kinky scientists who live out on the edge. Damn heretics.

EdgeScience #12

Issue 12 of the free PDF magazine EdgeScience is now available to download from the website of the Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE). In the new issue:EdgeScience 12

  • Rafael Locke contemplates whether it is possible to study conscious experience using scientifically verifiable methods.
  • William F. Bengston explores the difficulties in overcoming 'The Boggle Factor' in fringe science.
  • Larry Dossey discusses "Interconnectedness" in regards to medicine.
  • Michael Davidson reviews Barbara Arrowsmith-Young's book, "The Woman Who Changed Her Brain".

The latest EdgeScience comes with this message from the Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE):

For the past three years the SSE has been offering copies of EdgeScience to the public free of charge. In order to continue doing so, we need your help. Obviously, we would like you to become a member of SSE, in which case you would receive the latest digital issue of EdgeScience as it is published. You would also receive the quarterly Journal of Scientific Exploration, as well as other member benefits.

Click HERE to join SSE.

2012 European SSE Conference

The 2012 meeting of the European branch of the Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE) is being held this week (18th - 21st) in Drogheda, Ireland, under the title/theme of "Mapping Time, Mind and Space ". With speakers including Rupert Sheldrake, Paul Devereux, Brenda Dunne, Bob Jahn, and Erlendur Haraldsson, a group visit to the nearby Boyne Valley prehistoric monuments (including Newgrange), and an evening with one of Ireland’s few remaining authentic seanchaí or traditional storytellers, Eddie Lenihan, this conference should be well worth the effort if you can make it.

The full conference program is available on the website, with links to abstracts (wow, some fascinating topics in there!). It's open to the general public, so if you want to register, see the links on the front page.

Consciousness Through the Prism of the Simulation Argument

Inside The Matrix

There's a cool article at Vice at the moment titled "Whoa, Dude, Are We Inside a Computer Right Now?", which discusses the idea that we are living inside a computer simulation. This isn't something new to us here at the Grail - we've covered Nick Bostrom's thoughts on the topic previously (e.g. "The Matrix in the Mainstream"). The Vice piece though talks to Rich Terrile, a planetary scientist with NASA, who is also exploring the concept that our universe - and the conscious beings within it - is one great simulation (possibly within another simulation, and so on...turtles all the way down!).

One of the points Terrile makes is something I've pondered myself previously. When playing a game, in order to make most efficient use of processing power and memory, the computer will only 'construct' the part of the world that you need to see/interact with at any one time, rather than the entire 'world' that you are playing in. This brought to mind the concept and controversy in quantum physics of an observer-created world (eg. does the Moon exist if we're not looking at it?). Terrile has considered the same thing:

The other interesting thing is that the natural world behaves exactly the same way as the environment of Grand Theft Auto IV. In the game, you can explore Liberty City seamlessly in phenomenal detail. I made a calculation of how big that city is, and it turns out it’s a million times larger than my PlayStation 3. You see exactly what you need to see of Liberty City when you need to see it, abbreviating the entire game universe into the console. The universe behaves in the exact same way. In quantum mechanics, particles do not have a definite state unless they’re being observed. Many theorists have spent a lot of time trying to figure out how you explain this. One explanation is that we’re living within a simulation, seeing what we need to see when we need to see it.

Regardless of whether the theory is correct, I find it an interesting - almost necessary - thought experiment, for trying to understand how the cosmos may differ from what we think is obvious. In the case of the observation above, suddenly the idea "we're not the centre of the universe" becomes completely wrong again - indeed, 'the universe' only exists at any one time in limited space around our centre of being. Could we explain this new way of looking at the universe to someone from the 19th century, without the examples of computer games and quantum physics to draw on? If not, by extension, what different perspectives and insights into the nature of existence will the people of the 31st century have, as compared to us?

And Terrile himself seems to suffer from our vulnerability to being trapped within the dominant paradigm, even while contemplating the simulation argument:

Unless you believe there’s something magical about consciousness — and I don’t, I believe it’s the product of a very sophisticated architecture within the human brain — then you have to assume that at some point it can be simulated by a computer, or in other words, replicated.

That's right, the man who is proposing that our consciousness may be resulting from an algorithm courtesy of an external creator, or being 'inserted' into a simulation from some other place, doesn't believe there is something "magical" about consciousness. And yet these sorts of ideas have been discussed for many a year in regards to psi and life-after-death arguments (for example, see Michael Grosso's thoughts on 'transmission theory').

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Levitating Objects With Sound Waves

Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a way to use sound waves to levitate individual droplets of solutions containing different pharmaceuticals. While the connection between levitation and drug development may not be immediately apparent, a special relationship emerges at the molecular level.

You should have seen the size of the speakers the ancient Egyptians had to use when they made the pyramids...


Spontaneous Human Combustion Explained?

Last year an Irish coroner made headlines by ruling the death of a pensioner as having been caused by "spontaneous human combustion". Though there have been reports of the phenomenon for some 500 years, spontaneous combustion has long inhabited the edges of science, with many writing if off as a spurious mystery. Others though have attempted to solve the mystery scientifically, such as research biologist and author Professor Brian J. Ford. In the wake (no pun intended) of the Irish case, last November Ford put forward his own idea as to how SHC occurs, based around a specific medical note in the case:

The cue comes from the coroner's account of Michael Faherty, who reported that the dead man had been diabetic. Many of the victims of SGC have been obese, and obesity can trigger Type 2 diabetes. The disordered metabolism results in ketone bodies, like acetone; Possible SHC Case of Helen Conwayindeed the tell-tale odour on the breath is often indicative of the disorder... It is a highly inflammable gas: as little as 2.6% in air can explode and its flashpoint is -17.8 degrees C. It can also cause flashback, where a trail of methane can lead ignition back to the source. Acetone is miscible with lipids and could surely render body fat - itself combustible - into a highly flammable compound.

In my view, this offers the perfect explanation. A patient experiences ketosis; acetone and its allies form a reserve in teh fatty tissues of the body and collect in gaseous form under the clothing; the patient is thus potentially inflammable. A static spark from fabric or combing the hair could set off fierce combustion. The energy required to trigger an explosion of gaseous hydrocarbons is as little as 0.02mJ, which falls below the threshold of human perception, whereas static sparks from clothing can produce a painful jolt.

The reported cases support my proposal perfectly. Many of the victims have high levels of body fat, which provide the fuel depot and the likelihood of ketosis. The relatively fat-free extremities often survive the conflagration relatively intact, likewise the heart and intestines. The areas that are consumed are centred around the abdomen, which is where primary fat deposits accumulate.

This is a proposal that should now be investigated.

Since that time, Ford himself has done exactly that, as illustrated in the video lecture excerpts above. He took abdominal tissue from pigs and marinated it in acetone, then made scale models of humans from it and dressed them in clothes. Upon lighting, the models burned to ash within 30 minutes, leaving only protruding limbs - a similar facet to actual reports of SHC, as noted by Ford himself.

The Animal Mind Is More Complex Than Some Think

An influx of news headlines today give food for thought over the way we conceive (and treat) animals. One can only wonder at how continued research in these areas might change the status of animals in future centuries - note the tone of the linked PDF in the story directly below.

Octopuses Gain Consciousness (According to Scientists’ Declaration)

Elephants cooperate to solve problems. Chimpanzees teach youngsters to make tools. Even octopuses seem to be able to plan. So should we humans really be surprised that “consciousness” probably does not only exist in us?

This privileged state of subjective awareness in fact goes well beyond Homo sapiens, according to the new Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness (pdf), which was signed last month by a group of cognitive neuroscientists, computational neuroscientists, neuroanatomists, neuropharmacologists, neurophysiologists who attended the Francis Crick Memorial Conference on Consciousness in Human and non-Human Animals at Cambridge University in the U.K.

“The weight of evidence indicates that humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness,” the scientists wrote. “Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures, including octopuses, also possess these neurological substrates.”

Bonobo genius makes stone tools like early humans did:

Kanzi the bonobo continues to impress. Not content with learning sign language or making up "words" for things like banana or juice, he now seems capable of making stone tools on a par with the efforts of early humans.

Curious Incident of a Dead Giraffe

A curious incident of a deceased giraffe has reopened the question of whether animals mourn their dead.

Zoologists have witnessed a giraffe mother investigating and refusing to leave the body of her dead calf, the third such incident on record.

Other social animals such as elephants and chimpanzees are known to investigate their dead, especially the bodies of their close relatives.

Such behaviour raises the prospect that animals have a "mental model" of death.

Biologist Rupert Sheldrake Explains the Ten Dogmas Holding Science Back

'Maverick biologist' Rupert Sheldrake thinks there is a big problem in science, caused by those who employ it as a belief system, rather than using it as a method of inquiry. He thinks science is being held back by the former, and in his soon-to-be-released book Science Set Free (already available in the UK as The Science Delusion) he offers the "ten dogmas of science" that he thinks need to be treated with more suspicion than they currently are:

  1. That nature is mechanical.
  2. That matter is unconscious.
  3. The laws of nature are fixed.
  4. The totally amount of matter and energy are always the same.
  5. That nature is purposeless.
  6. Biological inheritance is material.
  7. That memories are stored as material traces.
  8. The mind is in the brain.
  9. Telepathy and other psychic phenomena are illusory.
  10. Mechanistic medicine is the only kind that really works.

The 'science delusion' is the uncritical belief in these dogmas, treating them not as beliefs but as truths... Science is much more fun, much more interesting, much more free, when we turn these dogmas into questions.

See the video at the top of this post for Sheldrake's more detailed explanation of these ten dogmas, or better still pick up the book for the complete argument.

US: Science Set Free (released Sept 4, 2012)
UK: The Science Delusion (available now)

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Kickstarter: Let's Build a Goddamn Tesla Museum

Tesla Museum Pitch

There's no shortage of readers of this blog who are interested in the research of Nikola Tesla. So this new IndieGoGo crowd-funding campaign is surely one that Grailers will be interested in: Matthew Inman, creator of the popular webcomic The Oatmeal, is aiming to build a Tesla Museum on the site of the famed scientist's last research lab:

Tesla's final laboratory is located in the sleepy town of Shoreham, New York. It's known as Wardenclyffe and it's where Tesla attempted to build a tower that would provide free wireless energy to the entire earth. Unfortunately, Tesla lost his funding before the project was completed and in 1917 the Wardenclyffe tower was demolished. Subsequently, the land was sold to a film and paper manufacturer.

However, the land, laboratory, and foundation beneath the tower are still there and very recently went up for sale. And right now a non-profit is trying to buy the property and turn it into a Nikola Tesla Museum. The property is listed at $1.6 million, and this non-profit has received a matching grant from New York State of up to $850k. This means that if we can raise $850k, New York State will match us for that same amount -- putting the total raised at $1.7 million.

There is currently another offer on the table from someone who wants to purchase the property potentially tear it down or turn it into a retail establishment. There is no Tesla museum in the United States, despite Tesla's extraordinary accomplishments. If we can outbid this other person and buy the land it will permanently be protected as a historic site and eventually converted into a Nikola Tesla Science Center.

I don't know much about the non-profit that the funds are going to, or if there are already other organizations aiming to preserve Tesla's legacy, or even if the overall goal has merit (here's one critical piece) - so, as always, I urge personal research if you care where your money is going. But if you're happy to go ahead, then chip in - unbelievably, at the time of writing the campaign is only $100,000 short of it's $850,000 goal.

Operation Let's Build a Goddamn Tesla Museum

Controversial Cold Fusion Chemist Dies

British chemist Martin Fleischmann, one of the two scientists involved in the initial, controversial claim of 'cold fusion' back in 1989, has passed away aged 85. Along with his partner Stanley Pons, Fleischmann claimed to have achieved a fusion reaction at room temperature in an experiment at the University of Utah - a breathtaking result that, if true, would have massive implications for future energy production.

However, after a flurry of widespread media attention, further research and replications by other scientists failed to find enough evidence for the cold fusion claim to be accepted. In the absence of support from further testing, Fleischmann and Pons' positive results were soon turned against them, with accusations of shoddy science gaining enough momentum to eventually make 'cold fusion' a heretical topic in scientific circles, and turn the scientists involved into 'poster boys' for pseudo-science. In 2005, Fleischmann described the whole affair as "a terrible experience". Nevertheless, some anomalous cold fusion results have continued to provoke interest in the topic, not least from the U.S. Department of Energy.

One wonders if one day, with future research into the topic, Fleischmann's reputation may be reinstated.

Fleischmann was born in Czechoslovakia. When the Nazis occupied the country in 1938, the family fled to England. To gain legal status for the move, Fleischmann was adopted by a British bachelor.

He studied chemistry at the Imperial College in London, and became known for a strong grasp of mathematics and an imagination unusual for a chemist. He took over the chemistry department of the University of Southampton in 1967 and gave it an international reputation. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, Britain's Academy of Sciences.

After retiring from the university, he spent a lot of time in Salt Lake City, collaborating on experiments with his friend Pons, an American. Together, they decided to revive an idea Fleischmann had years ago. He had speculated that something interesting, perhaps a nuclear reaction, could be achieved by taking advantage of the peculiar behavior of hydrogen atoms infused in palladium, a precious metal.

Source: Associated Press

Four-Dimensional iPad

I've used my iPad for gaming, for eBook reading, for taking notes and doing art. But I haven't yet used it to enter the fourth dimension. Until now...

The Fourth Dimension is a new app for iPad and iPhone. This app is a 30-page interactive book that explains the fourth dimension and lets you directly manipulate a 4D object called a tesseract using a unique touch-based interface.

This is the closest you will ever get to holding a chunk of the fourth dimension in your hand without using dangerous, expensive, and prohibitively theoretical lab equipment.

More information, and a link to the App Store, at the app's website. Love the app's icon too.