With the discovery of flowing water on the surface of Mars, it's fair to say it's been quite a week for Science and astronomers all over the world --particularly so for armchair researcher Efrain Palermo with this vindication of his 14-year-old findings, as I reported last Tuesday.
"Great!" all those space enthusiasts may be thinking; "now NASA will know where *exactly* to send future drone missions to look for signs of life on Mars."
Well, here's the thing: Legally they can't.
NASA, as a government agency, is bound to obey the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which is part of the international agreements intended to govern the conduct of member nations of the United States with regards to activities and/or exploitation of outer space, the Moon and other celestial bodies.
The Outer Space Treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom and the former Soviet Union on January of 1967 --while the Space Race was in full swing, and there was a serious concern that the Cold War could extend beyond the surface of our planet-- and entered into force on October of 1967. As of 2013, 103 countries are parties of it.
The treaty (which you can download here) binds all signature parties to conduct space exploration solely for peaceful scientific purposes; it forbids the national appropriation of the Moon or other planets (asteroids included) or the placing of either weapons or military bases in any of them, nor on orbit around the Earth.
Article IX states:
[...]State Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination [emphasis mine] and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose.
Ever wondered why Curiosity and the rest of its rover siblings always seemed to be sent to the most BORING parts of Mars, where there was little chance they could actually find a living Martian microbe? Well, now you know why.
As Bec Crew explains on his article for Science Alert, NASA's current sterelization methods for the equipment they send out to outer space or other planets are not 100% reliable, hence there's still a tiny risk of contaminating the surface of these other worlds with alien life --i.e. Earthling microbes.
Not that NASA couldn't sterilise the crap out of its rovers if it wanted to. As UNSW astrobiologist Malcolm Walter told The Sydney Morning Herald, they could blast Curiosity with crazy amounts of heat and radiation that would wipe out anything and everything that managed to survive the journey from Earth without a shadow of a doubt, but then they'd be wiping out the rover's internal electronics in the process. Not exactly practical.
"In order to be completely sterile, they'd have to use really powerful ionising radiation or heat, both of which would damage the electronics," says Walter. "So they go as far as they dare."
The treaty sure throws a bucket of cold, briny water not only to our hopes of finally finding extraterrestrial life within our lifetime, but also on the possibility of fulfilling a manned mission to Mars. Deposits of H2O on the world you want to visit is a great asset, because it means you can use the water not only for consumption, but also to extract breathable oxygen and event convert it into rocket fuel, which you could use for the trip back home.
Oh, and that awesome trip to Europa concocted by real-life Tony Stark? Fuhgeddaboutit! Unless he becomes a citizen of Guatemala, or other non-party state of the Outer Space Treaty --although with his dough he could probably buy one of those in the future...
Of course, back in 1967 there were a lot of things we didn't know about the resilience of extremophiles, which are now been found to resist the harshest environments imaginable, like the core of nuclear reactors or even on the windows of the space station (apparently); which is why Akshat Rathi of Quartz concludes there's no guarantee NASA's or other space agency's missions hadn't already contaminated Mars forever --Beagle 2 anyone?
Should we worry that much, though? We know Earth and Mars have been exchanging meteorites for millions of years, so sending up more microbes hitching a ride on our equipment or astronatus could be seen as a continuation of a natural panspermic process.
We could always revise the treaty, making it more lenient with regards to the 'harmful contamination' of the Moon and othe celestial bodies, or maybe even abolish it entirely due to its impracticality --after all, seems to me the Air Force has been bending the rules somewhat with that secretive X-37B space plane which can orbit the Earth for months doing god-knows-what!
But of course, if the treaty goes, so too the assurance that we won't have nuclear warheads zipping over our heads like an orbital Damocles sword...
But hey, if everything fails to prevent the safe and unpolluting exploration of outer space, just remember: There's always remote viewing.
Unless you were captured by the Mole people and just recently released --I heard Molemaids are hot, bro!-- you've probably read the news from NASA announcing the discovery of liquid water on the south pole of Mars; something which *exponentially* increases our chances of finding extraterrestrial life on our sibling planet in the near future.
Director Ridley Scott, who is about to release his newest film 'The Martian', claims he knew about the flowing water on Mars "about two months ago", when the head of NASA showed him the photographs that were released yesterday to the rest of the world.
But there was someone who knew the dark stains streaking across the Martian landscape was evidence of liquid water more than 14 years ago. That person was amateur astronomer Efrain Palermo.
Efrain, who resides in Portland, is what NASA scientists would call an 'armchair researcher.' He holds no degrees in Physics, Astronomy or Geology; but nonetheless has a passion for Science and Space. And like many other civilians, he likes to go through the thousands of publicly-released images taken by NASA's probes orbiting the Red Planet for almost 2 decades.
It was in one of those archival images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor --which has been charting the planet's surface since September of 1997-- in 2000-2001, when Efrain came across an image showing black streaks, which at that time were interpreted as 'dust slides' by NASA. However, Efrain became convinced by casual observation the streaks were water-related.
After gleaning through thousands of images, I had collected over 400 that had streaks in them. [Software engineer] Jill England joined me, and wrote a program to look for duplicate images taken at different times of the year, and she found images which showed flow activity in present time.
Richard Hoagland suggested plotting the images, and when we did so it became evident that the streaks were all in the equatorial zone of Mars, which is the warmest part of Mars and therefore likely candidates for liquid water.
Efrain and Jill partnered with Harry Moore --a geologist for the Society for Planetary SETI Research(SPSR) , Blaine, Tennessee-- who also had an interest in water on Mars, and brought sound geology to the table. Together they wrote a short paper --which you can read here-- and presented it at the 4th International Mars Society Convention, at Stanford University, in August 2001.
This is remarkable, Moore, England, and Palermo are amateur astronomers who went over the MGS data on their own to make the discovery, 14 years before NASA's announcement today.
Asked for a comment, Efrain showed diplomacy albeit tainted with justified frustration, because his work wasn't given its due recognition in yesterday's landslide of Mars-related articles:
The recent news announcement was validating; even though we did not have access to spectroscopic tools ,and we're working with the much lower resolution of the Mars Orbital Camera, we still arrived at the same conclusions 14 years ago. The information has been on my website since 2001, and I presented my seeps paper at the 2001 Mars Society Convention at Stanford U. While it has been gratifying to have NASA validate that work, it is also frustrating that no credit was given to the paper and its authors.
Frustrating, indeed. On the one hand NASA and the US government are always trying to keep the public interested in space exploration --after all, that's how they gain the necessary funding for future missions-- and yet when a group of amateurs make a substantial contribution to Science, they get silently swept under the rug without even a kudos.
Is it because they lacked the 'right' kind of credentials, and this is the typical reaction an 'outsider' receives when it comes knocking at the doors of Academia's ivory tower? Or maybe because they are guilty of associating themselves with someone like Richard Hoagland, who is by now synonymous with kooky claims about Martian civilizations who left the surface of their planet littered with all sorts of pareidolic artifacts?
With regards to the former, you'd think Astronomy would be more welcoming with amateurs, since they have been credited with all sorts of discoveries --e.g. the Shoemaker-Levy comet.
As for the latter, well… there's no getting around the fact that there arepeople in this field who stared at the Void far longer than they should have, and that for every Palermo or Hancock making astounding claims which are still not outside the realm of possibility, there are also folks finding Bigfoot on Mars, or selling Lemurian headbands...
Either an honest mistake or a blatant omission, NASA should do well in crediting people like Efrain Palermo*. Because he's an example that when it comes to space exploration (as with several other fields) it is amateurs --i.e. people not directly associated with government space agencies or academic institutions-- the ones who are now pushing the envelope and helping us expand our horizons.
And it will be amateurs like himself, Zubrin and Elon Musk, the ones which will probably determine our future as a space-faring civilization in the years to come.
To further know more about Efrain's work on Mars, listen to his interview on The Grimerica Show.
Efrain and Jill England also discussed the recent NASA news last night (Sept. 28) on Richard Hoagland's radio show The Other Side of Midnight.
UPDATE: In an interview for CNN to discuss NASA's anouncement, Robert Zubrin sets the record straight on the (not-so-recent) discovery of flowing water on Mars, and mentions Palermo et al's work.
Eighty years ago Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger put forward a now-famous thought experiment demonstrating the 'absurdity' of quantum physics. He (theoretically) placed a cat, a flask of poison, and a radioactive source in a sealed box. If an internal monitor detected the radioactivity from a single atom decaying, the poison would be released into the box, killing the cat. But in the weird world of quantum mechanics (or at least the 'Copenhagen Interpretation') the cat would supposedly remain in a state of 'superposition', both alive and dead, until an observation or measurement was made by an external observer opening the box, collapsing the wavefunction.
Schrödinger did not see his thought experiment as a serious possibility - instead, it was meant to show the problems with the Copenhagen interpretation. But eight decades on two researchers have put forward a serious suggestion to place a living organism - albeit a tiny bacterium, rather than a cat - in a state of superposition, effectively making it exist in two places at the same time. The proposed experiment builds on a 2013 paper in which the successful superposition of a macroscopic aluminium membrane was detailed.
According to the researchers, they propose...
...to create quantum superposition and entangled states of a living microorganism by putting a small bacterium on top of an electromechanical oscillator, such as a membrane embedded in a superconducting microwave resonant circuit. Our proposal also works for viruses. Since many biologists do not consider viruses as living organisms, we focus on small bacteria in this paper. [M]ost microorganisms can survive in the cryogenic environment that is required to achieve ground state cooling of an electromechanical oscillator. Although microorganisms are frozen in a cryogenic environment, they can be still living and become active after thawing. Cryopreservation is a mature technology that has been used clinically worldwide. Most microorganisms can be preserved for many years in cryogenic environments.
...This will be remarkably similar to Schrödinger initial thought experiment of entangling the state of an entire organism (‘alive’ or ‘dead’ state of a cat) with the state of a microscopic particle (a
In an interview with The Guardian, Tongcang Li of Purdue University noted that “in many fairy tales, a fairy could be at two different locations or change locations instantly. This will be similar to that. Although it will be a microbe instead of a fairy.”
“It will be the first experiment to put an organism into a quantum superposition state,” he added.
For a long time, the weird world of quantum effects was thought to reside only at the nanoscale level. However, as nuclear physicist Jim Al-Khalili points out in the video above, a new field of research - 'quantum biology', has begun to ask the question: do quantum effects also play a role inside the living cell?
And on investigating this question, scientists are finding that the answer appears to be 'yes'. For example:
Some years ago, the world of science was shocked when a paper was published showing experimental evidence that quantum coherence takes place inside bacteria, carrying out photosynthesis. The idea is that the photon, the particle of light, the sunlight, the quantum of light captured by a chlorophyll molecule, is then delivered to what's called the reaction center, where it can be turned into chemical energy. And in getting there, it doesn't just follow one route; it follows multiple pathways at once, to optimize the most efficient way of reaching the reaction center without dissipating as waste heat. Quantum coherence taking place inside a living cell. A remarkable idea, and yet evidence is growing almost weekly, with new papers coming out, confirming that this does indeed take place.
To explore these topics in more detail, see Jim Al-Khalili's book with Johnjoe McFadden, Life on the Edge: The Coming of Age of Quantum Biology.
Here's a spectacular short clip of the Northern lights, as seen from the vantage point of the International Space Station. Just Wow.
The vid was recorded by NASA astronaut Scott Kelly during his 141st day aboard the ISS --only 222 more days to go, chief!
— Scott Kelly (@StationCDRKelly) August 15, 2015
With an office view like that, who would mind working inside a cramped, smelly room with NO cigarette breaks?
Is it possible that the universe we appear to live in is a fake? An artificial reality, a simulation like, a super-advanced first-person shooter (just for most of us, a whole lot more boring one in which we go do a job)?
Philosopher Nick Bostrom, director of the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University, describes a fake universe as a "richly detailed software simulation of people, including their historical predecessors, by a very technologically advanced civilization."
It's like the movie "The Matrix," Bostrom said, except that "instead of having brains in vats that are fed by sensory inputs from a simulator, the brains themselves would also be part of the simulation. It would be one big computer program simulating everything, including human brains down to neurons and synapses."
Bostrum is not saying that humanity is living in such a simulation. Rather, his "Simulation Argument" seeks to show that one of three possible scenarios must be true (assuming there are other intelligent civilizations):
- All civilizations become extinct before becoming technologically mature;
- All technologically mature civilizations lose interest in creating simulations;
- Humanity is literally living in a computer simulation.
His point is that all cosmic civilizations either disappear (e.g., destroy themselves) before becoming technologically capable, or all decide not to generate whole-world simulations (e.g., decide such creations are not ethical, or get bored with them). The operative word is "all" — because if even one civilization anywhere in the cosmos could generate such simulations, then simulated worlds would multiply rapidly and almost certainly humanity would be in one.
Link: Is Our Universe a Fake?
- "Toward Reconciliation of Science and Spirituality: A Brief History of the 'Sursem' Project", by Edward F. Kelly
- "The Sirius Mystery: Time for a Reevaluation?", by Anthony Mugan.
- "The Stralsund Incident of 1665", by Chris Aubeck and Martin Shough.
- "Looking for a Revolution", by Andrew May.
Grab a free PDF or order a print version of EdgeScience 22 from the SSE website, and please consider a small donation to help the EdgeScience team continue with this excellent publication, via the button on the webpage. There's also a link to join the SSE on that page if you want to keep up with the latest academic research into the 'edgier' areas of science.
Seismologists in China have established an official 'early-warning centre' for earthquakes that will monitor seven farms full of animals looking for odd changes in behaviour:
One of the seismic stations is an ecological garden in Yuhuatai district, containing 200 black boars, 2,000 chickens, and a 2 square kilometers of fish pond. Cameras are installed around the animals' living environment to observe their behavior.
Their feeders report to the seismological bureau twice a day on any abnormal behavior that professionals will analyze for whether a possible earthquake is imminent.
Advance notice of impending earthquakes remains the holy grail of seismology, as there is still no reliable predictor of these sometimes devastating events. I recently noted here on TDG there is a long-held belief in many cultures that a number of animal species can sense an earthquakes coming:
Changes in behaviour have been noted in laboratory mice, daily rhythms of ants have reportedly been disrupted, and cows have been observed to behave unusually (in one case an entire herd of cows was witnessed lying down in unison before an earthquake struck). There were reports of elephants and flamingos heading to higher ground before the 2004 Boxing Day earthquake and tsunami, and more recently of zoo animals acting strangely before an earthquake that struck Washington, D.C. One of the earliest reports of animal behaviour predicting earthquakes is from Greece in 373 BC, when rats, weasels, snakes, and centipedes were said to have left their usual homes several days before it struck. that appeared to provide support for the idea that animals can sense earthquakes in advance.
In that same post I also discussed a recent scientific study which appears to support this idea. Researchers monitored nine 'camera traps' in Yanachaga National Park in Peru to monitor the movements of animals in the park, and found correlations between the number of animals and earthquake activity.
China is a hotspot for earthquake activity, so it might not be long until we find out whether this new 'outside-the-box' early-warning system works effectively.
From the people of ASAP Science, a cartoony description of the neurochemical effect psylocybin has on the human brain. Obviously this is explained from a materialistic POV, but let's not forget we're still on the stage of building bridges between Science and Spirituality --and part of that process is interesting more people about the potential benefits of psychedelics.
In other news, a new scientific study found no higher risk of psychosis caused by the consumption of LSD:
In the first study, clinical psychologists Pål-Ørjan Johansen and Teri Suzanne Krebs, both at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, scoured data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual random sample of the general population, and analysed answers from more than 135,000 people who took part in surveys from 2008 to 2011.
Of those, 14% described themselves as having used at any point in their lives any of the three ‘classic’ psychedelics: LSD, psilocybin (the active ingredient in so-called magic mushrooms) and mescaline (found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti). The researchers found that individuals in this group were not at increased risk of developing 11 indicators of mental-health problems such as schizophrenia, psychosis, depression, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts. Their paper appears in the March issue of the Journal of Psychopharmacology.
So I guess now Syd Barrett will no longer be exploited as a cautionary tale --by people who didn't like his music in the first place?
- "Does Consciousness Continue Beyond Death? A Search for Certainty", by Michael Urheber with Rhonda Drake.
- "Theoneurology: A New Model for Spiritual Experience", by Rick Strassman.
- "Moving Targets: Religious Studies and the Paranormal", by Joseph P. Laycock.
- "Phenomena Rich, But Science Poor" - Book review by Serena Roney-Dougal of Erlendur Haraldsson's Modern Miracles: Sathya Sai Baba: The Story of a Modern Day Prophet.
- "Professor Bottazzi's Toolkit", by Michael Schmicker.
Grab a free PDF of EdgeScience 21 from the SSE website, or the print version from MagCloud. If you do grab the free PDF, please consider a small donation to help the EdgeScience team continue with this excellent publication, via the button on the webpage. There's also a link to join the SSE on that page if you want to keep up with the latest academic research into the 'edgier' areas of science.