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This study of 1,358 children investigated whether intermittent montelukast -- a drug widely used to treat wheeze and other asthmatic symptoms -- compared with placebo, reduced wheezing episodes in children aged 10 months to 5 years, and whether patient outcome differed according to genotype.
Prediabetes increases the risk of cancer by 15 percent, with differing risks depending on the type of cancer, a meta-analysis comprising 16 studies and 891,426 participants from various regions of the world shows.
The effects of tear gas are not just short term and could be experienced for up to two weeks after the event, according to a new study. Results found a range of respiratory symptoms, with 70% of respondents reporting respiratory difficulties, 80% reporting a lasting cough, 45% phlegm production and 43% chest pain. The median duration of both cough and chest pain was 15 days.
Scientists believe they have found a way to explain why there are not as many galaxies orbiting the Milky Way as expected. Computer simulations of the formation of our galaxy suggest that there should be many more small galaxies around the Milky Way than are observed through telescopes. This has thrown doubt on the generally accepted theory of cold dark matter, an invisible and mysterious substance that scientists predict should allow for more galaxy formation around the Milky Way than is seen. Now cosmologists think they have found a potential solution to the problem.
As we age, all of us begin to think about what makes us tick and what kind of legacy we want to leave. For some, this manifests itself in the purchase of a motorcycle, a boat or an exotic vacation. But for others, the issues of age and transition are a bit more contemplative. The paper examines an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition later in life.
For most of us, being healthy is more than lack of disease. It is a state of physical and mental well-being. But what is well-being? Can a comprehensive picture of well-being be established? And how can a deeper understanding of the nature of well-being help further its measurement?
Productivity-boosting agricultural innovations in Africa could lead to an increase in global deforestation rates and carbon emissions, a study finds. "Increasing productivity in Africa -- a carbon-rich region with low agricultural yields -- could have negative effects on the environment, especially if agricultural markets are highly integrated," a researcher said. "This study highlights the importance of understanding the interplay between globalization and the environmental impacts of agricultural technology. They are deeply intertwined."
A high school senior who lives with 2 college-educated parents is significantly less likely to drink alcohol or smoke marijuana than a teenager who lives with one parent, a new study has found. In terms of race, the presence of both parents is an especially strong protective factor for African-American adolescents.
One shot of an experimental vaccine made from two Ebola virus gene segments incorporated into a chimpanzee cold virus vector, called chimp adenovirus type 3 or ChAd3, protected all four macaque monkeys exposed to high levels of Ebola virus 5 weeks after inoculation, report scientists.
Biologists have identified a gene that can slow the aging process when activated remotely in key organ systems. The life scientists, working with fruit flies, activated a gene called AMPK that is a key energy sensor in cells. Increasing AMPK in the intestine increased the fly's life by about 30 percent, and the fly stayed healthier longer as well. The research could have important implications for delaying aging and disease in humans.
A pond-dwelling, single-celled organism has the remarkable ability to break its own DNA into nearly a quarter-million pieces and rapidly reassemble those pieces when it's time to mate. This elaborate process could provide a template for understanding how chromosomes in more complex animals such as humans break apart and reassemble, as can happen during the onset of cancer.
In the typical textbook picture, volcanoes, such as those that are forming the Hawaiian islands, erupt when magma gushes out as narrow jets from deep inside Earth. But that picture is wrong, according to a new study from researchers who conclude that seismology data are now confirming that such narrow jets don't actually exist.
Industrial wet spinning processes produce fibers from polymers and other materials by using tiny needles to eject continuous jets of liquid precursors. The electrically charged liquids ejected from the needles normally exhibit a chaotic 'whipping' structure as they enter a secondary liquid that surrounds the microscopic jets. Researchers have now learned how to control that chaotic structure.
Depictions of animals in ancient Egyptian artifacts have helped scientists assemble a detailed record of the large mammals that lived in the Nile Valley over the past 6,000 years. A new analysis of this record shows that species extinctions, probably caused by a drying climate and growing human population in the region, have made the ecosystem progressively less stable.
Paleontologists have identified a new species of titanosaurian, a member of the large-bodied sauropods that thrived during the final period of the dinosaur age, in Tanzania. Although many fossils of titanosaurians have been discovered around the globe, especially in South America, few have been recovered from the continent of Africa.
A neuroimaging study is the first to show that white matter damage caused by severe obstructive sleep apnea can be reversed by continuous positive airway pressure therapy. The results underscore the importance of the 'Stop the Snore' campaign of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project, a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Sleep Research Society and other partners.
The conversion of forests into cropland worldwide has triggered an atmospheric change to emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds that -- while seldom considered in climate models -- has had a net cooling effect on global temperatures, according to a new study.
Only one in four students with asthma and half of children with food allergies have emergency health management plans in school, leaving schools inadequately prepared to manage daily needs and handle medical emergencies related to often life-threatening medical conditions, reports a new study.
Hospitals across the country have seen sharp declines in rates of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) among critically ill neonates and children, according to a new study.
An ortho-oncology team successfully adapted a shoulder surgical aid (the Spider Limb Positioner) to conduct a left hip disarticulation on a melanoma patient as described in a new case report.