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Updated: 7 hours 52 min ago
An imbalance of female sex hormones among men in Western nations may be contributing to high levels of male obesity, according to new research. Scientists suggest that obesity among Western men could be linked with exposure to substances containing the female sex hormone estrogen -- substances that are more often found in affluent societies, such as soy products and plastics.
May 2014 was the third warmest May in the 35-year satellite-measured global temperature record, and the warmest May that wasn't during an El Niño Pacific Ocean warming event, according to new data. The global average temperature for May was 0.33 C (about 0.59 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than seasonal norms for the month. The warmest May was in 1998, during the "El Niño of the century."
A new drug target to fight Alzheimer's disease has been discovered by a research team that also has potential for development as a novel diagnostic tool for Alzheimer's disease. The research also suggests that an ultimate successful therapy may be a cocktail of compounds acting on several drug targets simultaneously.
Data demonstrate the possibility of using biomarkers (developed from whole blood gene expression profiles) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis to predict the status of their disease at 12 months. The long-term disease status at 12 months was accurately predicted only after treatment had been initiated, in newly diagnosed patients.
A new study showed a significantly increased risk of heart attack in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, particularly in the first year following diagnosis. There was also a trend towards an increased risk for stroke.
A new study highlights the increased health care costs associated with musculoskeletal conditions compared to other diseases. Health care costs were almost 50 percent higher for people with a musculoskeletal condition compared to any other singly occurring condition.
New cohort studies have shown the amino acid valine at position 11 of HLA-DRB1 gene to be the strongest independent genetic determinant of radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, positions 71 and 74 were found to represent independent predictors, with the three positions together: 11, 71 and 74 strongly associated with disease outcomes.
A new genetic 'barcode' for malaria parasites has been found that could be used to track and contain the spread of the disease, according to new research. By using this simple genetic marker when analyzing blood samples from malaria patients, organizations could quickly and accurately identify the source of outbreaks, and spot the spread of drug-resistant parasites from Asia to Africa.
The inexpensive anti-malarial drug hydroxychloroquine reverses resistance to tamoxifen, a widely used breast cancer drug, in mice. “Tamoxifen resistance when treating breast cancer is a big issue in the clinic, and we believe our findings provide a very promising fix to the problem,” says the study’s senior investigator.
Nanotechnology, optics and photovoltaic energy are among the fields that can benefit from advances in knowledge on semiconductor nanowire systems. Researchers have succeeded to prove, for the first time, the accumulation of high electron mobility gases in multilayer nanowires from a technique called “remote doping”.
Breakthrough for information technology using Heusler materials: May lead to very high performance spintronic components
It is the breakthrough that physicists and chemists around the world have long anticipated and it will play a pivotal role in information technology in coming years. Researchers have managed, for the first time, to directly observe the 100 percent spin polarization of a Heusler compound. Heusler alloys are composed of several metallic elements arranged in a lattice structure. They are among those materials that potentially can be used for ever smaller data storage components with ever greater storage capacity.
Scientists are using a pioneering method of ‘caging’ and cooling water molecules to study the change in orientation of the magnetic nuclei at the center of each hydrogen atom - a process which transforms the molecule from one form of water to another. By trapping water molecules in carbon spheres and cooling them, scientists have been able to follow the change in form (or isomer) of the molecules.
About 500 power stations around the world use geothermal power to generate electricity, although there are yet to be any in Spain. The temperature increases by 30 ºC for every kilometer further underground. This thermal gradient, generated by the flow of heat from the inside of the Earth and the breakdown of radioactive elements in the crust, produces geothermal power.
New mechanisms used by bacteria to manufacture lipids, i.e. fat molecules, for the cell membrane have been discovered by researchers. Those mechanisms are a combination of familiar bacterial synthesis pathways and of such that occur in higher organisms. Thus, the team has debunked the long-standing theory that lipid production in bacteria differs substantially from that in higher organisms.
A specialist detector which is set to play a fundamental part in helping the UK reduce its carbon emissions is being developed. Muon detectors which exploit cosmic-ray muons, a natural radiation to see through kilometers of rock -- in a similar way to X-rays being used to see inside a patient's body -- are being developed to improve monitoring of the process of subsurface carbon storage.
Selecting graduate students in the fields of science and engineering based on an assessment of their character instead of relying almost entirely on their scores on a standardized test would significantly improve the quality of the students that are admitted students and, at the same time, boost the participation of women and minorities in these key disciplines, experts say.
Consumption of undercooked cyst-laden meat from cattle, sheep and goats may cause infection in humans. Researchers have successfully invented a PCR kit which provides a suitable and feasible means of screening, detection and identification with high sensitivity and specificity of the parasite.
Scientists have invented a new permanent surface coating that attracts water instead of repelling it, for a better, clearer view. The patented technology simplifies the coating process, making it more cost-effective for manufacturers.
For some cigarette smokers, strategies to aid quitting work well, while for many others no method seems to work. Researchers have now identified an aspect of brain activity that helps to predict the effectiveness of a reward-based strategy as motivation to quit smoking. "Our results suggest that... 'at-risk' smokers could potentially be identified prior to a quit attempt and be provided with special interventions designed to increase their chances for success," researchers remarked.
Researchers have found that people with lower blood levels of vitamin D were twice as likely to die prematurely as people with higher blood levels of vitamin D. The finding was based on a systematic review of 32 previous studies that included analyses of vitamin D, blood levels and human mortality rates. The specific variant of vitamin D assessed was 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the primary form found in blood.