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Updated: 3 hours 21 min ago

No innocent bystander: Cartilage contributes to arthritis

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:25pm
Cartilage plays an active role in the destruction and remodeling of joints seen in rheumatoid arthritis, rather than being an 'innocent bystander' as previously thought, researchers report.
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Brain inflammation dramatically disrupts memory retrieval networks, study finds

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:25pm
Brain inflammation can rapidly disrupt our ability to retrieve complex memories of similar but distinct experiences, according to scientists. The study specifically identifies how immune system signaling molecules, called cytokines, impair communication among neurons in the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for discrimination memory. The findings offer insight into why cognitive deficits occurs in people undergoing chemotherapy and those with autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases.
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Favoritism linked to drug use in 'disengaged' families

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:25pm
In families, the perception that parents have a favorite is linked with the less-favored children being twice as likely to use alcohol, cigarettes or drugs. For parents worrying about keeping score and managing perceptions of fairness, one expert has some very simple advice. "Show your love to your kids at a greater extent than you currently are. As simple as it sounds, more warmth and less conflict is probably the best answer."
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Experts call for massive global response to tackle Ebola

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:25pm
The current Ebola outbreak now requires a 'rapid response at a massive global scale,' according to experts. The outbreak which began in December 2013 now spans five countries in West Africa and has so far killed nearly 2000 people, with the WHO predicting that 20,000 may become infected.
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Corn spots: Study finds important genes in defense response

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:25pm
When corn plants come under attack from a pathogen, they sometimes respond by killing their own cells near the site of the attack, committing "cell suicide" to thwart further damage from the attacker. This cell sacrifice can cause very small, often microscopic, spots or lesions on the plant. Researchers have now scoured the corn genome to find candidate genes that control this important defense response.
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Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
A small protein named GILZ appears to protect against the bone loss that often accompanies arthritis and its treatment, researchers report. Arthritis as well as aging prompt the body to make more fat than bone, and the researchers have previously shown GILZ can restore a more youthful, healthy mix. It also tamps down inflammation, a major factor in arthritis, they say.
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Dendritic cells affect onset, progress of psoriasis

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Different types of dendritic cells in human skin have assorted functions in the early and more advanced stages of psoriasis report researchers. The scientists suggest that new strategies to regulate the composition of dendritic cells in psoriatic skin lesions might represent an approach for the future treatment of the disease.
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Moving silicon atoms in graphene with atomic precision

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
In recent years, it has become possible to see directly individual atoms using electron microscopy -- especially in graphene, the one-atom-thick sheet of carbon. Scientists have now shown how an electron beam can move silicon atoms through the graphene lattice without causing damage. The research combines advanced electron microscopy with demanding computer simulations.
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Conjecture on the lateral growth of Type I collagen fibrils

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Research building on recent model using the algorithm of phyllotaxis to build a dense organization of triple helices in fibrils with circular symmetry.
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New family of materials for energy-efficient information storage and processing

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Hexagonal rare earth ferrites have been demonstrated to exhibit both spontaneous electric and magnetic dipole moments (as a rare case), which may enable couplings of the static electric and magnetic fields in these materials, suggesting application in energy-efficient information storage and processing.
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Cutting the cloud computing carbon cost

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Researchers have investigated how cloud computing systems might be optimized for energy use and to reduce their carbon footprint.
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Gray matter matters when measuring risk tolerance: May explain why risk tolerance decreases with age

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists found that the grey matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Men and women with higher grey matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion.
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Potential link between assisted reproduction, autism: No link found

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:22pm
Over the past five years, several studies have focused on infertility treatment, partly because of the coincidental rise in both the diagnosis of autism and the use of assisted reproduction. A recent study examined a potential link, and concluded that there is none.
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Nicotine withdrawal reduces response to rewards across species

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
While more than half of US smokers try to quit every year, less than 10 percent are able to remain smoke-free, and relapse commonly occurs within 48 hours of smoking cessation. In a first of its kind study on nicotine addiction, scientists measured a behavior that can be similarly quantified across species like humans and rats, the responses to rewards during nicotine withdrawal. Learning about withdrawal and difficulty of quitting can lead to more effective treatments to help smokers quit.
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A meta-analysis of three types of peer norms and their relation with adolescent sexual behavior

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
Researchers have completed research on adolescent sexual behavior. The goal was to analyze how this behavior is related to adolescents' perceptions of three types of sexual peer norms, including how sexually active their peers are, how much their peers would approve of being sexually active, or how much they feel pressured by their peers to have sex.
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Iberian Peninsula endured tropical storms in the 18th century and severe droughts in Islamic times

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
The first meteorological measurements were taken in the Iberian Peninsula in 1724, which coincides with the year in which Portugal suffered one of the worst storms ever. Later, in 1816, Spain felt the effects of the eruption of the Mount Tambora volcano and almost one thousand years before, in 898, a drought in Al-Andalus was so severe that communities even resorted to cannibalism. These are facts recovered from old documents.
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Clues to how giant elliptical galaxies move

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
New clues to how giant elliptical galaxies move have been discovered by an international team of astronomers. Elliptical galaxies have long been considered as essentially being made up of old stars that move randomly within them, like a swarm of bees. This has been challenged in many instances in the past ten-twenty years, but giant elliptical galaxies are still considered as a nearly round and non-rotating group of old stars by astronomers.
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From worm muscle to spinal discs: An evolutionary surprise

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
Thoughts of the family tree may not be uppermost in the mind of a person suffering from a slipped disc, but those spinal discs provide a window into our evolutionary past. They are remnants of the first vertebrate skeleton, whose origins now appear to be older than had been assumed. Scientists have found that, unexpectedly, this skeleton most likely evolved from a muscle.
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Piglet health: A better understanding of the immune response to intestinal parasites

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
Parasitologists are closer to understanding the disease process behind porcine neonatal coccidiosis. The disease affects piglets during the first days of their life and can cause heavy diarrhea in the animals. The parasite Cystoisospora suis damages the intestinal mucosa to such a degree that it threatens the growth and survival of the pigs. The researchers have now analyzed the immune response to the infection.
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Anemia: One-minute point-of-care test shows promise in new study

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:51pm
A simple point-of-care testing device for anemia could provide more rapid diagnosis of the common blood disorder and allow inexpensive at-home self-monitoring of persons with chronic forms of the disease. About a third of the population is at risk for anemia, which can cause neurocognitive deficits in children, organ failure and less serious effects such as chronic fatigue. Women, children, the elderly and those with chronic conditions such as kidney disease are more likely to suffer from anemia.
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