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Reducing air pollution in New York City would result in substantial economic gains for children as a result of increasing their IQs. The study is the first to estimate the costs of IQ loss associated with exposure to air pollution, and is based on prior research on prenatal exposure to air pollutants among low-income children.
Adults with autism spectrum disorder, who may have trouble talking about themselves and interacting socially, don't always make good impressions in job interviews and have low employment rates. A new human simulation training program, now available to the public, helps adults with autism improve their job interview skills and confidence, reports a new study.
Despite fears over cost, the wide-scale screening of young people to detect risk of sudden cardiac death is feasible and cost effective, according to a study. More than 12,000 people aged between 14 and 35 were screened at a cost of £35 each; rates of subsequent referral for further investigation were low and considered of 'a relative low additional cost' to health services.
A 40-year-old theory on when and how cells divide has been overturned by a study that shows that 'parent' cells program a cell division time for their offspring that is different from their own. Scientists have shown that both phases of the cell cycle contribute to the overall change in division time rather than one staying fixed in duration as previously thought. They have developed these findings into a new model that helps scientists predict how a population of cells has divided.
With 1.11 billion users per month on average, Facebook has become a global phenomenon offering continual and direct communication with friends and family. Research into how social media websites define us socially, and the influence that social media has on our personal welfare, suggests that a lack of social participation on Facebook leads to people feeling less meaningful.
Scientists have discovered a new quantum control mechanism to selectively shake and break C-H bonds in symmetric hydrocarbon molecules with the waveform of femtosecond laser pulses.
Scientists now have a greater understanding of the effects of pesticides on aquatic invertebrates such as shrimps and snails, thanks to new research. It provides an important new approach for systematically measuring and modelling the sensitivity of aquatic invertebrates to various pesticides.
Urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG) accurately detects alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates and recipients, researchers have confirmed. The study suggests that a combination of uEtG and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for alcohol consumption (AUDIT-c) are best in alerting doctors to alcohol consumption by patients undergoing evaluation for liver transplantation or who have received liver transplants.
Patients who gained weight 18 months after taking Orlistat attributed their weight-loss failure either to the side effects which have prevented them from sticking to the medication or felt that the medication simply had not worked. Orlistat is currently the only prescribed drug for obesity and functions by reducing the amount of fat absorbed from food eaten.
The genes of 894 men and women over the age of one hundred in Spain and Japan have revealed that the secret to longevity, at least in southern Europe, lies in a variant on chromosome 9p21.3, which had already been associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Centenarians live at least fifteen years longer than the average person in the West. This exceptional longevity is partially genetic, and it appears that there are a number of gene variants that may hold the key to a healthy old age life.
Scientists have found that pressure from the fluid surrounding the brain plays a role in maintaining proper eye function, opening a new direction for treating glaucoma — the second leading cause of blindness worldwide.
Scientists have developed an extensive cytogenetics “toolbox” designed to provide the necessary means to identify key cytogenetic signatures in numerous canine cancers.
New research may help in the fight against terrorism with the creation of a sensor that can detect tiny quantities of explosives with the use of light and special glass fibers. The researchers describe a novel optical fiber sensor which can detect explosives in concentrations as low as 6.3 ppm (parts per million). It requires an analysis time of only a few minutes.
Four percent of Canadians aged 12 to 14 years old had consumed five or more drinks on at least one occasion in the preceding year, according to a new study. The findings also indicated that the odds of binge drinking were twice as high among youth with three or more chronic conditions.
On March 29, 2014, an X-class flare erupted from the right side of the sun ... and vaulted into history as the best-observed flare of all time. The flare was witnessed by four different NASA spacecraft and one ground-based observatory -- three of which had been fortuitously focused in on the correct spot as programmed into their viewing schedule a full day in advance.
A new study suggests that people who survived the medieval mass-killing plague known as the Black Death lived significantly longer and were healthier than people who lived before the epidemic struck in 1347. These findings have important implications for understanding emerging diseases and how they impact the health of individuals and populations of people.
A strong handshake can say a lot about a person: it can indicate power, confidence, health, or aggression. Now scientists say that the strength of a person’s grasp may also be one of the most useful ways to measure people’s true age.
Misinformation and misunderstanding about the risks associated with ionizing radiation create heightened public concern and fear, and may result in avoidance of screening mammography that can detect early cancers. The authors conclude that medical personnel should make concerted effort to accurately inform women of the risks and benefits of mammography—specifically highlighting the low dose of mammographic ionizing radiation—and provide objective facts to ensure that women make informed decisions about screening.
Screening 40- to 49-year-old women for breast cancer has additional benefits beyond the proven decrease in mortality rate. Patients screened with mammography are statistically less likely to undergo chemotherapy, avoiding the associated toxic morbidities. Screening mammography also helps identify a subset of patients at increased risk of breast cancer by diagnosing high-risk lesions.
Estimated radiation doses are substantially lower for pediatric CT exams of the brain that used an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASIR) compared to those that did not use ASIR.