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Tracking the 'social networks' of genes disrupted in complex diseases

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:05pm
Your personal risk of developing complex diseases such as diabetes, depression or cancer is influenced in part by genetic variants, that is, letters in your DNA sequence that differ between people. These variants disrupt networks of interacting genes in different tissues of your body, two studies have found. Innovative software tools allowed the scientists to construct accurate “maps” of gene networks for about 400 different human cell and tissue types, ranging from immune cells to brain tissues, whereas previous studies were limited to just one or few tissues. Each of these networks describes hundreds of thousands of regulatory interactions among thousands of genes, giving the first global view of the “control system” of diverse cells and tissues.
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Repetitive body movements may form long-lasting motor memory

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:05pm
Repetitive movements in slow-learning stages can alter an area of the brain responsible for movement, and help individuals retain these motor skills, researchers have found. 
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Where males sense females in plants

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:05pm
New research is unraveling the unknown receptors and mechanism for fertilization in plants. Pollen tubes are attracted by LURE peptides, which are produced from ovules, to bring about fertilization. A pair of plant biologists has now revealed for the first time, the receptor in pollen tubes that is required to detect LURE. By uncovering this unknown mechanism in plant fertilization, this may lead to an improvement in the efficiency of pollen tube growth, which may thus result in an increased success rate of fertilization.
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Hot electrons detected in real time

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:05pm
Scientists have fabricated a graphene-semiconductor catalytic nanodiode for improved conductivity of graphene-based nanostructures
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Major differences between male and female breast cancers uncovered, but male patients still disadvantaged by lack of research

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:05pm
Male breast cancer (Male BC) has important biological differences that distinguish it from female breast cancer, but to date these have been little studied and Male BC patients have been excluded from many clinical trials in breast cancer. Male patients are also usually diagnosed later when their cancers are more advanced, leading to a worse outcome. New research has now uncovered some of the differences between the two types of breast cancer, and the researchers hope that this will help doctors to make better treatment choices for Male BC patients.
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Supercritical CO2-cooled micro modular reactor

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 2:00am
A research team has suggested an innovative concept of a reactor cooled by supercritical state carbon dioxide (S-CO2). The core has long life (20 years) without refueling as well as inherent safety features.
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Researchers rediscover Aquilaria rostrata thought to have become extinct

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 2:00am
Aquilaria rostrata forest tree species said to have become extinct after the last time it was found about 100 years ago, has been rediscovered by researchers.
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Bending light with silicon nanoparticles

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:57am
Researchers in Singapore are using “nanoantennae” to manipulate light beams. This may open the door to the development of new light-based technologies.
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Stable environmentally friendly polymer coatings inhibit surface buildup of bacterial and marine organisms

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:57am
An eco-friendly strategy to stop the collection of bacteria and marine organisms on objects immersed in seawater has been developed. Scientists have created a safe, polymer-based, coating.
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On-the-spot diagnosis of certain cancers and other diseases is closer to becoming a reality thanks to a sensitive biosensor

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:57am
A compact optical device that can rapidly and sensitively detect biomarkers in urine has been developed. It has promise for developing simple point-of-care diagnosis of cancer and other diseases.
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Surface chemistry offers new approach to directing crystal formation in pharmaceutical industry

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:57am
A study suggests the surface properties of the glass vessels in which pharmaceutical ingredients are prepared has an effect on how they crystallize.
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Children born prematurely are disadvantaged at school and into adulthood but delaying school entry may not be the answer

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:22am
Children born before 34 weeks gestation have poorer reading and maths skills than those born at full term, and the difficulties they experience at school continue to have effects into adulthood: by the age of 42, adults who were born prematurely have lower incomes and are less likely to own their own home than those born at full term.
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Low cost, 25 min TB-test could help reduce tuberculosis death rate among patients with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:21am
A low cost, easy to use, urine test to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) among patients with HIV could help reduce the TB death rate of HIV-positive patients in hospital, according to a new study.
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'Ultra-processed' foods make up more than half of all calories in US diet

Thu, 10/03/2016 - 1:21am
'Ultra-processed' foods make up more than half of all calories consumed in the US diet, and contribute nearly 90 percent of all added sugar intake, finds new research.
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Depression, high blood pressure, other chronic conditions may be common at MS diagnosis

Wed, 09/03/2016 - 11:29pm
People newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) may often have other chronic health conditions as well, according to a study. For the study, researchers examined how common several chronic conditions were in 23,382 people with MS at the time of their diagnosis and 116,638 people of the same age and sex without the disease.
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Five ways X-ray laser can change the way we live

Wed, 09/03/2016 - 11:29pm
If you've ever stood in a dark room wishing you had a flashlight, then you understand how scientists feel when faced with the mysteries of physical processes that happen at scales that are mind-bogglingly small and fast.
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Seeing the light: Army ants evolve to regain sight and more in return to surface

Wed, 09/03/2016 - 11:28pm
A study of army ants revealed that some species increased their brain size, including visual brain regions, after evolving above-ground behavior. Their ancestors had lived mainly underground for nearly 60 million years. Such increases in brain capacity are a rarely-studied evolutionary phenomenon.
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Modern corn hybrids more resilient to nitrogen stress, crowded planting conditions

Wed, 09/03/2016 - 11:28pm
Modern corn hybrids produce more plant material and take up, on average, the same amount of nitrogen as earlier varieties, in spite of being more crowded and having less nitrogen available per plant, a review finds.
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Don't let youth trip you; more than 50 percent of young adults fall, trip

Wed, 09/03/2016 - 11:28pm
Young adults fall more frequently than expected, and most falls occur during everyday activities such walking and talking, according to new research. 'The most commonly cited statistic is that one in three older adults falls each year due to age-related changes in balance, and in this four-month study, more than half of the college students fell during daily activities,' said a professor of health and kinesiology.
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'Dose-dense' chemo for premenopausal breast cancer patients improves survival

Wed, 09/03/2016 - 11:28pm
Premenopausal women with breast cancer have a better chance of survival if they are given cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy closer together, every two weeks rather than every three weeks. Furthermore, this regime does not increase the risk of early menopause, according to results of a meta-analysis of trials involving over 3,000 patients.
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