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The existence of gender-based wage gaps in many occupations continues to be a hot-button topic in social and political debates. While much attention has been focused on medium- and lower-wage positions, some studies have shown that wage disparities extend to high-wage, high-prestige positions. According to a new study, women who serve as directors of internal medicine residency programs are paid less than their male counterparts.
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of bone health and may be implicated in other chronic diseases, as well as immunity, but adults in Canada are consistently deficient in dietary vitamin D, by nearly 400 international units per day (IU/d) on average. Coupled with low vitamin D synthesis from the sun during fall and winter at Canadian latitudes, tracking intake of vitamin D is vital for those lacking the nutrient. In a new article, a group of researchers examined the validity of a mobile application for tracking vitamin D and calcium intake.
Traditionally, patients with endometrial cancer -- cancer of the womb lining -- have their disease risk classified using a combination of clinical and tissue characteristics, including their age and the growth and invasion of their tumor. Now high-risk womb cancer patients can be genetically profiled to allow them to receive more appropriate treatment, researchers have demonstrated.
When highly educated, dual-career couples have their first child, both spouses think the baby increases their workloads by equal amounts -- but a new study suggests that's not true. Detailed results show that the mother takes on the lion's share of extra work. The results were especially surprising because before the baby was born, these couples were sharing household chores relatively equally.
Personalized medical interventions to prevent heart disease could generate $114 billion worth of heath gains in United States, experts say. These interventions tailor medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient, according to their susceptibility to a particular illness. But it goes beyond just targeting therapies at individuals who are ill; it includes the ability to identify those at highest risk of developing a disease, and who would benefit most from prevention measures.
People asked to rate the end-of-life care of an elderly loved one were significantly less likely to report care was excellent in a 2011-13 survey than those who were surveyed in 2000. The study's findings about the perception of care quality suggest an urgency to improving US care for the dying.
Marine scientists have long known that some species of fish possess a unique physiological characteristic -- a web of arteries and veins lying very close together -- that enables them to raise their internal temperatures higher than that of the water surrounding them. Now, a new study has demonstrated that species possessing the ability to warm their core -- a process called endothermy -- are able to swim two and a half times faster than those whose body temperature doesn't change.
Local media's sensitive approach to communities trying to cope in the face of trauma helps local people adapt to the stressful events by strengthening community bonds.
Male job applicants who are perceived to have high levels of leadership potential are rated as a better employment prospect than a female applicant with prove leadership track record.
A new study on the impact of 'drive-hunting' dolphins in the Solomon Islands is casting a spotlight on the increasing vulnerability of small cetaceans around the world. From 1976 to 2013, more than 15,000 dolphins were killed by villagers in Fanalei alone, where a single dolphin tooth can fetch the equivalent of 70 cents -- an increase in value of five times just in the last decade.
Viewing violent news events via social media can cause people to experience symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
How to protect your chicks from predators? Build a dome over them! There is tremendous diversity among the nests of birds, in nest location, structure, materials, and more, but we know very little about the forces that shaped the evolution of this incredible variety. A new study finds that domed-shaped nests arose as a result of species transitioning to nesting on the ground, where the risk from predators is greater.
A study of the best ways to structure equal billing plans says that smart companies should set them up so that customers get money back at the end of the term. Not only do they think they prefer to pay a little more each month to make sure they get that refund later but after having experienced a refund they are more satisfied and more loyal.
Children are more likely to display troublesome behavior in families in which the father feels unsupported by his partner.
Shifting to renewable energy sources has been widely touted as one of the best ways to fight climate change, but even renewable energy can have a downside, as in the case of wind turbines' effects on bird populations. In a new paper, a group of researchers demonstrate the impact that one wind energy development in Kansas has had on Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) breeding in the area.
People with brain bleeds are more likely to survive if they're treated at a comprehensive stroke center. Comprehensive stroke centers have the equipment and personnel to deal with the most severe strokes, including neurological critical care and 24-hour availability of neurosurgeons.
The Trace app turns a digital sketch that you draw on your smartphone screen -- heart, maple leaf, raindrop -- into a walking route that you can send to a friend. The recipient of the "gift" receives step-by-step walking directions that eventually reveal the hidden shape on a map.
Although rates of childhood obesity have risen over the last several decades, a vast majority of parents perceive their kids as “about the right weight,” according to new research. The authors believe it is the first study to examine the lack of change over time of parents’ perception of their preschool child’s weight status.
Children who undergo heart surgery are better off receiving fresh whole blood transfusions from a single donor, rather than receiving component blood from multiple donors. Limiting donor exposures reduces the patients' risk of complications, research shows.
A long-standing mystery about the origin of one of the cell types that make up the ovary has been solved by researchers. The team also discovered how ovarian cells share information during development of an ovarian follicle, which holds the maturing egg.