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Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
A small protein named GILZ appears to protect against the bone loss that often accompanies arthritis and its treatment, researchers report. Arthritis as well as aging prompt the body to make more fat than bone, and the researchers have previously shown GILZ can restore a more youthful, healthy mix. It also tamps down inflammation, a major factor in arthritis, they say.
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Dendritic cells affect onset, progress of psoriasis

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Different types of dendritic cells in human skin have assorted functions in the early and more advanced stages of psoriasis report researchers. The scientists suggest that new strategies to regulate the composition of dendritic cells in psoriatic skin lesions might represent an approach for the future treatment of the disease.
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Moving silicon atoms in graphene with atomic precision

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
In recent years, it has become possible to see directly individual atoms using electron microscopy -- especially in graphene, the one-atom-thick sheet of carbon. Scientists have now shown how an electron beam can move silicon atoms through the graphene lattice without causing damage. The research combines advanced electron microscopy with demanding computer simulations.
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Conjecture on the lateral growth of Type I collagen fibrils

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Research building on recent model using the algorithm of phyllotaxis to build a dense organization of triple helices in fibrils with circular symmetry.
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New family of materials for energy-efficient information storage and processing

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Hexagonal rare earth ferrites have been demonstrated to exhibit both spontaneous electric and magnetic dipole moments (as a rare case), which may enable couplings of the static electric and magnetic fields in these materials, suggesting application in energy-efficient information storage and processing.
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Cutting the cloud computing carbon cost

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
Researchers have investigated how cloud computing systems might be optimized for energy use and to reduce their carbon footprint.
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Gray matter matters when measuring risk tolerance: May explain why risk tolerance decreases with age

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:24pm
The gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex is significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes, new research has found. Using a whole-brain analysis, scientists found that the grey matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Men and women with higher grey matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion.
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Potential link between assisted reproduction, autism: No link found

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 3:22pm
Over the past five years, several studies have focused on infertility treatment, partly because of the coincidental rise in both the diagnosis of autism and the use of assisted reproduction. A recent study examined a potential link, and concluded that there is none.
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Nicotine withdrawal reduces response to rewards across species

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
While more than half of US smokers try to quit every year, less than 10 percent are able to remain smoke-free, and relapse commonly occurs within 48 hours of smoking cessation. In a first of its kind study on nicotine addiction, scientists measured a behavior that can be similarly quantified across species like humans and rats, the responses to rewards during nicotine withdrawal. Learning about withdrawal and difficulty of quitting can lead to more effective treatments to help smokers quit.
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A meta-analysis of three types of peer norms and their relation with adolescent sexual behavior

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
Researchers have completed research on adolescent sexual behavior. The goal was to analyze how this behavior is related to adolescents' perceptions of three types of sexual peer norms, including how sexually active their peers are, how much their peers would approve of being sexually active, or how much they feel pressured by their peers to have sex.
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Iberian Peninsula endured tropical storms in the 18th century and severe droughts in Islamic times

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
The first meteorological measurements were taken in the Iberian Peninsula in 1724, which coincides with the year in which Portugal suffered one of the worst storms ever. Later, in 1816, Spain felt the effects of the eruption of the Mount Tambora volcano and almost one thousand years before, in 898, a drought in Al-Andalus was so severe that communities even resorted to cannibalism. These are facts recovered from old documents.
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Clues to how giant elliptical galaxies move

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
New clues to how giant elliptical galaxies move have been discovered by an international team of astronomers. Elliptical galaxies have long been considered as essentially being made up of old stars that move randomly within them, like a swarm of bees. This has been challenged in many instances in the past ten-twenty years, but giant elliptical galaxies are still considered as a nearly round and non-rotating group of old stars by astronomers.
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From worm muscle to spinal discs: An evolutionary surprise

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
Thoughts of the family tree may not be uppermost in the mind of a person suffering from a slipped disc, but those spinal discs provide a window into our evolutionary past. They are remnants of the first vertebrate skeleton, whose origins now appear to be older than had been assumed. Scientists have found that, unexpectedly, this skeleton most likely evolved from a muscle.
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Piglet health: A better understanding of the immune response to intestinal parasites

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:53pm
Parasitologists are closer to understanding the disease process behind porcine neonatal coccidiosis. The disease affects piglets during the first days of their life and can cause heavy diarrhea in the animals. The parasite Cystoisospora suis damages the intestinal mucosa to such a degree that it threatens the growth and survival of the pigs. The researchers have now analyzed the immune response to the infection.
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Anemia: One-minute point-of-care test shows promise in new study

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:51pm
A simple point-of-care testing device for anemia could provide more rapid diagnosis of the common blood disorder and allow inexpensive at-home self-monitoring of persons with chronic forms of the disease. About a third of the population is at risk for anemia, which can cause neurocognitive deficits in children, organ failure and less serious effects such as chronic fatigue. Women, children, the elderly and those with chronic conditions such as kidney disease are more likely to suffer from anemia.
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Sickle cell disease: Attempting to improve transition from child to adult care

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 12:51pm
Sickle cell disease had been considered a pediatric ailment since people with it generally didn’t live to adulthood. Pediatricians report that 95% now live to their 20th birthday. Unfortunately, when our patients prepare to leave the pediatric system, a smooth transition to adult healthcare is lacking.
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Age, diabetes duration linked to risk of death, macrovascular complications

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 1:09am
Age -- or age at diagnosis -- and duration of diabetes disease are linked to the risk of death and marcovascular complications, whereas only diabetes duration is linked to the risk of microvascular complications, research shows.
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Combining gut hormone with insulin proves more effective at controlling type 2 diabetes than other common treatments

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 1:09am
Combined treatment with a drug that mimics the action of a gut hormone and basal insulin is more effective at improving blood sugar control than other anti-diabetic treatments, with similar rates of hypoglycaemia (dangerously low blood sugar levels) and greater weight loss, a systematic review and meta-analysis shows.
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Scientists fabricate single-photon sources in solid matter

Fri, 12/09/2014 - 1:09am
A breakthrough in quantum information processing was achieved using state-of-the-art diamond growth technology. A research group has successfully fabricated for the first time in the world single-photon sources of SiV (silicon vacancy) centers – one of the color centers in diamond during the growth of thin film diamond, which have high purity and crystalline quality – by introducing them at extremely low concentrations.
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NASA identifying candidate asteroids for redirect mission

Thu, 11/09/2014 - 10:53pm
NASA is on the hunt to add potential candidate target asteroids for the agency's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The robotic mission will identify, capture and redirect a near-Earth asteroid to a stable orbit around the moon. In the 2020s, astronauts will explore the asteroid and return to Earth with samples. This will test and advance new technologies and spaceflight experience needed to take humans to Mars in the 2030s.
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