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Complex genetic ancestry of Americans uncovered

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 5:22pm
By comparing the genes of current-day North and South Americans with African and European populations, a study has found the genetic fingerprints of the slave trade and colonization that shaped migrations to the Americas hundreds of years ago.
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IQ of children in better-educated households is higher

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 5:21pm
A study comparing the IQs of male siblings in which one member was reared by biological parents and the other by adoptive parents found that the children adopted by parents with more education had higher IQs.
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Women with diabetes more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage breast cancer

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:09pm
Diabetes is associated with more advanced stage breast cancer, according to a new study that confirms a strong link between diabetes and later stage breast cancer at diagnosis. "Our findings suggest that women with diabetes may be predisposed to more advanced stage breast cancer, which may be a contributor to their higher cancer mortality," said one scientist.
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Red blood cell traits associated with malaria risk in children

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:09pm
Certain red blood cell traits in children can increase or decrease their risk for malaria, researchers say. Researchers also found that a genetic condition known as homozygous X-linked G6PD deficiency correlated with a reduced risk of malaria in girls only. Meanwhile, HbC-trait, in which the body makes an abnormal hemoglobin called hemoglobin C, appeared to increase malaria risk in children. Scientists hope this study will lead to further research into the molecular mechanisms of the malaria-protective effects of red blood cell variants.
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Higher volume of scoliosis surgeries linked to reduced reoperation rates

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:09pm
Adolescent patients who need scoliosis surgery may benefit most from going to a hospital that performs a high volume of the procedures, according to new research. Specifically, 14.1 percent of patients who saw a surgeon that performed a low volume of the procedures (less than 6 per year) needed a new operation, compared to 5.1 percent of patients who saw a surgeon that performed more than 43 surgeries per year, authors say.
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Diabetics with ankle fractures have longer lengths of stay, more health care costs

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:09pm
American researchers have found that patients with diabetes were more likely to incur significantly greater hospital charges (mean: $26,491 diabetes versus $20,428 nondiabetes) and have significantly longer lengths of stay (5.8 days diabetes compared with 3.9 days nondiabetes) compared to patients without diabetes.
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New kind of 'tandem' solar cell: New solar cell combines two materials for broader absorption

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:08pm
Researchers have developed a new kind of solar cell that combines two different layers of sunlight-absorbing material in order to harvest a broader range of the sun's energy. The development could lead to photovoltaic cells that are more efficient than those currently used in solar-power installations, the researchers say. The new cell uses a layer of silicon -- which forms the basis for most of today's solar panels -- but adds a semi-transparent layer of a material called perovskite, which can absorb higher-energy particles of light. Unlike an earlier "tandem" solar cell reported by members of the same team earlier this year -- in which the two layers were physically stacked, but each had its own separate electrical connections -- the new version has both layers connected together as a single device that needs only one control circuit.
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Norovirus candidate vaccine induces broad antibody responses in trial participants

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:08pm
A multivalent candidate vaccine elicits broad antibody responses to a range of norovirus strains, including strains not included in the vaccine or previously encountered by participants, according to a new study. The results of the study indicate that a vaccine to norovirus may be available in the future.
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Discovery of what attracts pregnant mosquitoes is used to fight malaria

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:07pm
The battle against malaria is also a battle against its natural host, the mosquito, which means disrupting the insect's lifecycle is every bit as important as putting nets over beds. Now, an international research team has discovered what attracts mosquitoes to lay their eggs in specific places.
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Music to the ears of dementia suffers: learning to play saxophone after diagnosis

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:07pm
Researchers have revealed details of an usual case that offers new insights into frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The story revolves around a patient who, with no prior musical training, learned to play the saxophone after being diagnosed with a behavioural variant of FTD.
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Looking for happiness in all the wrong places

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:07pm
Everyone knows that money can’t buy happiness – but what might make rich people happier is revealed in a new article. Numerous studies have already shown that people who are more materialistic are generally less satisfied with their standards of living, their relationships and their lives as a whole. With that being the case, the researchers wondered if anything could moderate that relationship and in effect make materialistic people more satisfied with their lot.
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Pay gap between male and female registered nurses has not narrowed

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:06pm
An analysis of the trends in salaries of registered nurses (RNs) in the United States from 1988 through 2013 finds that male RNs outearned female RNs across settings, specialties, and positions, with no narrowing of the pay gap over time, according to a new study.
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Outcomes for stent vs medications for narrowed artery within the brain

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:06pm
Among patients with symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (narrowing of an artery inside the brain), the use of a balloon-expandable stent compared with medical therapy (clopidogrel and aspirin) resulted in an increased of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), according to a new study.
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'Goldilocks material' could change spintronics

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:06pm
Attempting to develop a novel type of permanent magnet, a team of researchers has discovered a new class of magnetic materials based on Mn-Ga alloys. Described as a zero-moment half metal, the new Mn2RuxGa magnetic alloy has some unique properties that give it the potential to revolutionize data storage and significantly increase wireless data transmission speeds.
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Squeeze to remove heat: Elastocaloric materials enable more efficient, 'green' cooling

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:06pm
Scientists report that the elastocaloric effect opens the door to alternative forms of solid-state refrigeration that are direct replacements for vapor compression technology.
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National alert issued: Look-alike packaging may cause confusion between neostigmine and phenylephrine

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 4:06pm
A National Alert for Serious Medication Errors has been issued by ASHP and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), warning of potentially dangerous mix-ups between two relatively new presentations of older medications, neostigmine injection and phenylephrine injection.
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The challenges for anthropologists when they're the expert in the courtroom

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 3:16pm
Researchers are examining the intellectual, practical and ethical challenges for anthropologists when they're hired to serve as expert witnesses.
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Got (fresh) milk? Preserving milk using energy efficient pulsed electric field processing

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 3:16pm
High voltage, short pulsed electric fields selectively damage cell membrane directly killing the contaminating bacteria by a process known as electroporation. Once applied multiple times, this process prevents bacteria proliferation in milk during storage, researchers say.
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Laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation may be safer than abdominal procedure, new study indicates

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 3:15pm
A study has compared the relative risks of laparoscopic hysterectomy (with morcellation) with abdominal surgery for hysterectomy in premenopausal women undergoing surgery for presumed uterine fibroids. Examining short- and long-term complications, quality of life, and overall mortality, they found that abdominal surgery carries a higher risk of complications, decreased quality of life, and death.
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Four-stranded DNA-binding protein conserved in plants and animals

Tue, 24/03/2015 - 3:13pm
Molecular biophysicists show that the same type of protein works in plants and animals to bind to peculiar DNA structures called G-quadruplexes, or G4 DNA for short.
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