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Doctors aren't diagnosing or treating most cases of prediabetes, study finds

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:48pm
Less than one-quarter of patients who met the criteria for prediabetes received drug or lifestyle modification treatment from their primary care physician, according to researchers, who say the findings indicate physicians are missing opportunities for diabetes prevention.
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HIV targets tissue macrophages, researchers demonstrates

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:47pm
HIV infects and reproduces in macrophages, large white blood cells found in the liver, brain and connective tissues of the body, new research demonstrates. This discovery has significant implications for HIV cure research.
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Geochemists show experimental verification of principle of detailed balance

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:47pm
Geochemists have developed and demonstrated a technique for assessing the validity of a principle that has long been important in thermodynamics and chemical kinetics but has proven resistant to experimental verification.
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Design research can improve patient experiences of radiotherapy

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:47pm
Patients risk experiencing anxiety and fear when health care does not meet individual patients' needs. New approaches to reduce anxiety for instance over radiotherapy are needed and design research is well-suited to meet these challenges, one expert says.
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Bird communication: Chirping with syntax

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:47pm
People communicate meaning by combining words according to syntactic rules. But this ability is not limited solely to humans: A group of evolutionary biologists have discovered that Japanese great tits, like humans, have also evolved syntax. By combining their various calls using specific rules, these songbirds can communicate specific messages and engage in complex interactions.
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Slower evolution and climate change drove ichthyosaurs to extinction

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:47pm
Ichthyosaurs -- shark-like marine reptiles from the time of dinosaurs -- were driven to extinction by intense climate change and their own failure to evolve quickly enough, according to new research by an international team of scientists.
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Cardiovascular safety of obesity treatment naltrexone-bupropion uncertain

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:31pm
The cardiovascular safety of the obesity treatment naltrexone-bupropion remains uncertain because of the unanticipated early termination of a trial to determine its safety, according to a study.
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Why Hurricane Irene fizzled as it neared New Jersey in 2011

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:31pm
A dynamic process that cools the coastal ocean and can weaken hurricanes was discovered as Hurricane Irene made landfall in New Jersey, according to a new study. The study's findings could help reduce the uncertainty in hurricane intensity forecasts for hurricanes and typhoons that cross coastal ocean waters before striking populated shorelines. Hurricane track forecasts have steadily improved over the last two decades, but improvements in hurricane intensity forecasts have lagged.
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Unique optical trapping system offers way to launch high-power laser light

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:30pm
The researchers created the optical trap by inserting the nanospike into the hollow core fiber and launching a high-power 1,064-nanometer laser beam into the single-mode fiber. When the laser light enters the tapered portion of the fiber it begins to spread out beyond the nanospike into the empty space inside the hollow core fiber.
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Risk of being involved in an avalanche less for smaller groups of recreationists

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:30pm
As winter backcountry activities increase in popularity, avalanches are a very real risk for adventurers who choose to travel off the beaten path. A new study explored the risk of avalanche accidents with respect to group size for the first time and found that traveling in groups of four or more people carried a higher relative avalanche risk than for individuals or groups of two.
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Brain activity of nematodes seeking food offers new view on sleep

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:30pm
If you have trouble sleeping, the neurons in your brain may be firing like those in roundworms randomly seeking food in the absence of clues, says a biologist.
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Women suffer more neck pain than men

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:30pm
Women are 1.38 times more likely than men to report neck pain due to cervical degenerative disc disease, according to a new study.
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How skin cancer starts: Skin cancer teams up with Sonic the Hedgehog

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:30pm
An international team of scientists studied what mutations are responsible for formation of the most common skin cancer type.
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Electricity, heating most climate-friendly uses for natural gas

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
Researchers have determined the most climate-friendly use of natural gas is replacement of existing coal-fired power plants and fuel-oil furnaces rather than burning it in cars and buses.
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Eastern US forests more vulnerable to drought than before 1800s

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
Over thousands of years, most forests in the eastern United States evolved with frequent fire, which promoted tree species and ecosystems that were both fire and drought resistant. In little more than a century, humans upset that balance, suggest researchers, who blame the change, in part, on the well-meaning efforts of Smokey Bear.
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Green tea and iron, bad combination

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
Green tea is touted for its many health benefits as a powerful antioxidant, but experiments in a laboratory mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease suggest that consuming green tea along with dietary iron may actually lessen green tea's benefits.
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First case of acute myelitis in a patient infected with Zika virus

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
A first case of acute myelitis following infection with Zika virus has been reported for the first time. A young patient in the acute phase of an infection by Zika virus presented motor deficiency in the four limbs, associated with very intense pain and acute urinary retention.
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Do gun restrictions help reduce gun deaths?

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
Researchers looked at the associations between firearm-related laws and firearm homicides, suicides, and unintentional injuries and deaths. The results indicate that gun violence tended to decline after countries passed new restrictions on gun purchasing and ownership. The paper is the first to explore the evidence from around the world on gun laws and gun violence to determine whether gun restrictions help reduce gun deaths.
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New scanning technology benefits diabetic eye care in national telemedicine trial

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
Ultrawide field (UWF) scanning technology significantly improved the ability of experts at a remote central location to identify diabetic retinopathy in a patient, and to judge whether the eye disease warranted referring the patient to an ophthalmologist for further care, a national clinical trial suggests.
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Browsing in public: System lets web users share aspects of their browsing history

Tue, 08/03/2016 - 6:29pm
A new system has been developed that allows Web users to share self-selected aspects of their online activity with their friends and the general public. The hope is to give users themselves, as well as academics and other scientists conducting research in the public interest, access to the same type of browsing data that big Web companies currently collect and mine to better target products to individual consumers.
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