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E. coli outbreak at hospital in Illinois associated with contaminated specialized gastrointestinal endoscopes
Despite no lapses in the disinfection process recommended by the manufacturer being identified, specialized gastrointestinal endoscopes called duodenoscopes had bacterial contamination associated with an outbreak of a highly resistant strain of E coli at a hospital in Illinois, according to a study.
New vaccination strategies for the prevention and control of avian influenza, often referred to as “bird flu,” have been examined by two randomized trials, scientists report.
A one-day prevalence survey of 183 hospitals found that approximately 50 percent of hospitalized patients included in the survey were receiving antimicrobial drugs, and that about half of these patients were receiving 2 or more antimicrobial drugs. Most antimicrobial use was for infection treatment.
A series of detailed genetic studies points scientists to a new way to dramatically increase the accumulation of oil in plant leaves, an abundant source of biomass for fuel production.
A new tool can be used as a drug target in the discovery of anti-Ebola agents that are effective against all known strains and likely future strains, researchers report. Current experimental drugs generally target only one of Ebola's five species. "The current growing epidemic demonstrates the need for effective broad-range Ebola virus therapies," says the lead author on the study.
The molecule nuclear factor kappa B helps tumors grow by inhibiting the body's ability to detect cancer cells, research shows. The molecule suppresses immune surveillance mechanisms, including the production of cells that inhibit immune responses. The research suggests that cancer immune therapy might be improved if combined with NF-kB inhibitors, and it provides new details about interactions between cancer cells and non-cancer cells that assist tumor growth.
During the weeks leading up to Halloween, kids dressed in white sheets as ghosts, silly-looking goblins and dancing zombies can make death seem comical or cartoonish. However, this pretend, temporal idea of death can be confusing for children, especially a child who is trying to understand the loss of a loved one.
An “Achilles heel” in a metabolic pathway crucial to stopping the growth of lung cancer cells has been identified by researchers. At the heart of this pathway lies PPAR³, a protein that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in normal cells. Researchers demonstrated that by activating PPAR³ with antidiabetic drugs in lung cancer cells, they could stop these tumor cells from dividing.
Poor oral health and hygiene are increasingly recognized as major risk factors for pneumonia among the elderly. To identify modifiable oral health-related risk factors, researchers investigated associations between a constellation of oral health behaviors and incidences of pneumonia in the community-living of elders.
Abuse of heroin and prescription opioid drugs is growing rapidly, creating a need for more treatment options. A new study finds that state policies can influence the number of physicians licensed to prescribe buprenorphine, a drug that can treat addiction to heroin and other opioids in outpatient settings.
For the first time, researchers have investigated ancestry across the red fox genome, including the Y chromosome, or paternal line. The data, compiled for over 1,000 individuals from all over the world, expose some surprises about the origins, journey and evolution of the red fox, the world's most widely distributed land carnivore.
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals, including humans, make decisions. A new study reveals how fruit fly females make a very important decision: to either accept or reject male courtship. This decision appears to be generated by a very small number of excitatory neurons that use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter located in three brain regions. This study provides the framework to understand how decisions are generated.
Treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid, an oral chelation agent, was linked to reductions in the amount of lead in blood in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria following environmental lead contamination, according to a new study.
The link between low average glucose blood levels and greater risk for severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma substantially declined between 1995 and 2012 in young Germans and Austrians with type 1 diabetes, according to a new study.
The clearly defined epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), have been identified by researchers for the first time. These tumors occur primarily in the lining of the stomach and small intestine. One key finding: Patients of Asian descent, who have not previously been identified as an at-risk population, are 1.5 times more likely than other patient groups to be diagnosed with this type of tumor.
Not having close access to healthy foods can discourage even the most motivated dieters. "The findings of this study support a cornerstone theory of the Mass in Motion program that supportive environments can facilitate behavior change and ultimately improve health," said a co-author.
A breakthrough paper has been published describing researchers' invention of a miniaturized biomedical testing device for exosomes. "Exosomes are minuscule membrane vesicles -- or sacs -- released from most, if not all, cell types, including cancer cells," said one chemist. "They were once thought to be trash bags containing unwanted cellular contents. However, in the past decade scientists realized that exosomes play important roles in many biological functions through capsuling and delivering molecular messages in the form of nucleic acids and proteins from the donor cells to affect the functions of nearby or distant cells."
Children as young as 15 months can detect anger when watching other people's social interactions and then use that emotional information to guide their own behavior. The study is the first evidence that younger toddlers are capable of using multiple cues from emotions and vision to understand the motivations of the people around them.
Cancer possesses special traits for cooperative behavior and uses intricate communication to distribute tasks, share resources, and make decisions. New research now offers additional insight into the lethal interaction between cancer cells and the immune system's communications network.
A new review of the way health care professionals emphasize weight to define health and wellbeing suggests the approach could be harmful to patients. Weight-inclusive approaches, such as the Health At Every Size initiative, emphasize a view of health and wellbeing as multifaceted and direct efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma.