A new test for tuberculosis could dramatically improve the speed and accuracy of diagnosis for one of the world's deadliest diseases, enabling health care providers to report results to patients within minutes, according to a study. Although preventable, TB claims three lives every minute, making it the second leading cause of mortality from an infectious disease in the world.
Platonic solids are regular bodies in three dimensions, such as the cube and icosahedron, and have been known for millennia. They feature prominently in the natural world wherever geometry and symmetry are important, for instance in lattices and quasi-crystals, as well as fullerenes and viruses. Platonic solids have counterparts in four dimensions, and mathematicians have now shown that there are six of them, five of which have very strange symmetries.
A member of the protein family known as SUMO -- small ubiquitin-like modifier -- is a key to why tumor cells multiply uncontrollably, especially in the case of glioblastoma, scientists have discovered. Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal brain cancer. Current standard treatments include surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite the treatments, patients survive about a year and half. The cancer continues growing in part due to the presence of the cancer stem cells.
A high-quality gene catalog of human gut microbiome has been developed by researchers, a key to understanding human health and diseases. While the roughly 20,000 genes in the human genome have been available for over a decade, the gene catalog of the microbiome, our much larger "other genome," has to date been much more poorly understood and characterized.
A team of scientists reports the observation of a previously unrecognized form of soot particle, identified as 'superaggregates,' from wildfire emissions. These particles were detected in smoke plumes from wildfires in Northern California, New Mexico, Mexico City, and India. These particles contribute up to 90-percent more warming than spherical sub-micrometer soot particles, which current climate models use.
China's richest provinces have an outsized environmental impact on the country's water-scarce regions, according to new research. Many developed regions in China are not only drawing from their own water resources but also contributing to water depletion in other water-scarce regions of the country through imports of food and other water-intensive goods, researchers report.
New research shows projected changes in the winds circling the Antarctic may accelerate global sea level rise significantly more than previously estimated. Changes to Antarctic winds have already been linked to southern Australia's drying climate but now it appears they may also have a profound impact on warming ocean temperatures under the ice shelves along the coastline of West and East Antarctic.
College athletes who have abusive coaches are more willing to cheat in order to win than players with more ethical coaches, according to new research based on surveys from almost 20,000 student athletes at more than 600 colleges across the country. Men’s teams were much more willing to cheat than women’s teams, according to the study, and men’s football, basketball and baseball teams reported the highest willingness to cheat at large universities where players are often under intense pressure to win.
An anonymous reader writes with this breakdown and comparison of the first two Android Wear watches available today. The first two watches built on the Android Wear platform launch today. One is from LG, the G Watch, and the other is from its arch Korean peninsular rival, Samsung, the Gear Live. Should you buy one today? Maybe. It depends on how early you like to adopt. Let's take a quick trip through analysis lane. First, let's talk about Android Wear, because both watches run on the same platform, and both of them have more or less the same software. Android Wear really does two main things, it moves app notifications to the watch's face, and it puts Google Now's voice-powered search capabilities on your wrist. That's about it. But that's pretty powerful.
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NASA's NEOWISE snapped a series of infrared images of C/2012 K1 (aka Pan-STARRS) in May 2014, when the comet was ~143 million miles away. The spiral galaxy, NGC 3726, is 55 million light years away. FULL STORY: http://goo.gl/bzopex
Taco Cowboy writes The subway system in Hong Kong has one of the best uptime, 99.9%, which beats London's tube or NYC's sub hands down. In an average week as many as 10,000 people would be carrying out 2,600 engineering works across the system — from grinding down rough rails to replacing tracks to checking for damages. While human workers might be the one carrying out the work, the one deciding which task is to be worked on, however, isn't a human being at all. Each and every engineering task to be worked on and the scheduling of all those tasks is being handled by an algorithm. Andy Chan of Hong Kong's City University, who designed the AI system, says, "Before AI, they would have a planning session with experts from five or six different areas. It was pretty chaotic. Now they just reveal the plan on a huge screen." Chan's AI program works with a simulated model of the entire system to find the best schedule for necessary engineering works. From its omniscient view it can see chances to combine work and share resources that no human could. However, in order to provide an added layer of security, the schedule generated by the AI is still subject to human approval — Urgent, unexpected repairs can be added manually, and the system would reschedules less important tasks. It also checks the maintenance it plans for compliance with local regulations. Chan's team encoded into machine readable language 200 rules that the engineers must follow when working at night, such as keeping noise below a certain level in residential areas. The main difference between normal software and Hong Kong's AI is that it contains human knowledge that takes years to acquire through experience, says Chan. "We asked the experts what they consider when making a decision, then formulated that into rules – we basically extracted expertise from different areas about engineering works," he says.
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Some viruses can hide in our bodies for decades and make 'fake' human proteins that trick our immune cells into believing nothing is wrong. Now researchers have determined the basic structure of one of the two known families of these deceptive proteins.
The equivalent of one-third of Melbourne's water use could be saved each year through the implementation of efficiency measures that deal with climate change, according to a new study. Researchers analyzed the water-saving potential of 74 options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions identified in ClimateWorks Australia's award-winning Low Carbon Growth Plan for Australia.
Babies' growth in the womb and their size at birth, especially their length, are strikingly similar the world over -- when babies are born to healthy, well-educated and well-nourished mothers. That is the finding of a large study that involved almost 60,000 pregnancies in eight defined urban areas in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, the UK and USA.
A trio of paleontologists has discovered a remarkable new tracksite in Alaska's Denali National Park filled with duck-billed dinosaur footprints -- technically referred to as hadrosaurs -- that demonstrates they not only lived in multi-generational herds but thrived in the ancient high-latitude, polar ecosystem. The article provides new insight into the herd structure and paleobiology of northern polar dinosaurs in an arctic greenhouse world.
Insights into how cells move through the body could lead to innovative techniques to stop cancer cells from spreading and causing secondary tumors, finds new research. Scientists discovered that cells can change into an invasive, liquid-like state to readily navigate the narrow channels in our body. This transformation is triggered by chemical signals, which could be blocked in order to stop cancer cells from spreading.
Astronomers investigating the behavior of the universe shortly after the Big Bang have made a surprising discovery: the properties of the early universe are determined by the smallest galaxies.
Alcohol problems are often undetected in primary care but by asking two simple questions, GPs could quickly uncover which patients have drinking problems -- including patients who would otherwise remain undetected -- according to new research.
The European Space Agency (ESA) has selected the Athena X-ray Observatory as its second 'Large-class' science mission in the 21st Century, which will help answer vital questions about the universe.
Sociable weavers, a highly social and co-operative breeding bird from the savannahs of southern Africa, build the largest nests of any bird, housing colonies of up to several hundred birds that can often weigh tonnes and last for decades. The massive nests consist of individual nest chambers which are used throughout the year for breeding and roosting and are embedded within a communal thatch. Now research on these birds provides insight into one of the biggest questions in science -- why some animals, including humans, work together to maintain a common good.