Life With The Great Sphinx

I first met the Great Sphinx face-to-face on 17 June 1990. She (yes, I consider the Great Sphinx a female) has influenced and in many ways defined my life ever since. It has been apparent to me that many a person knows me, or believes they know me, or more accurately knows of me, due to the controversy over the age of the Sphinx that my research has engendered.

For those not familiar with my research on the Great Sphinx, I will summarize it very briefly. For more extended discussions, I refer the reader to my books (listed in the notes to this article).

History of an Enigma

The Great Sphinx, carved out of solid bedrock limestone, sits on the eastern edge of the Giza Plateau, the area famous for containing the Great Pyramid attributed to the Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Khufu (Cheops), on the west bank of the Nile across from Cairo. The Sphinx sits due east of the second pyramid, the pyramid generally attributed to the pharaoh Khafre (Chephren, Khephren), possibly the son or brother of Khufu. The second pyramid is just slightly smaller than the Great Pyramid. A third major pyramid, though considerably smaller than the other two, is also located on the Giza Plateau; it is attributed to the pharaoh Menkaura (Menkaure, Mycerinus), possibly a grandson or son of Khufu. It is these three pyramids that various researchers, most notably Robert Bauval, have correlated with the belt of the constellation Orion (representative of, in some guises, the Egyptian god Osiris).

The traditional academics of the late twentieth century attributed the Great Sphinx to the pharaoh Khafre, builder of the second pyramid, circa 2500 B.C. In contrast, some classical Egyptologists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries dated the Great Sphinx to an earlier, pre-dynastic, period, foreshadowing my own work. There are no definitive ancient records of who originally carved the Sphinx, when, or why. We do not even know the name that the Old Kingdom Egyptians gave to the Sphinx.

A granite stela erected between the paws of the Sphinx by Thutmose IV, circa 1400 B.C., when first excavated was reported to include in its inscription the name, or at least part of the name, of Khafre (this portion of the inscription has since flaked away). This has been variously interpreted to indicate that either Khafre ordered the Sphinx carved, or that Khafre ordered the Sphinx renovated, as Thutmose IV did over a millennium later. In reality, however, it is unclear if indeed it was the Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Khafre being named on the stela, or what relationship the stela may have suggested that Khafre had to the Sphinx: builder, restorer, supplicant, or something else. Bottom line: The Thutmose IV stela provides no definitive evidence of when, or by whom, the Sphinx was constructed. Also possibly bearing on the origins of the Great Sphinx is the so-called Inventory Stela, alternatively known as the Stela of Cheops’ (Khufu’s) Daughter. Although the actual stela dates to the seventh or sixth century B.C., it purports to be a copy of an Old Kingdom text. According to the Inventory Stela, the Great Sphinx was already in existence during the reign of Khufu. Indeed, Khufu is credited with repairing the Sphinx after it was struck by lightning. Modern Egyptologists generally dismiss the Inventory Stela as a late period fabrication.

In New Kingdom times (circa 1550 to 1070 B.C. or so) the Great Sphinx was sometimes referred to as Horemakhet (Hor-em-akhet, Harmakhet, Harmachis), which can be translated as Horus of the Horizon or Horus in the Horizon, or as Ra-horakhty, translated as Ra of the Two Horizons. In medieval Arabic times one appellation given to the Great Sphinx was Abu el-Hol (Abu al-Hol, Abou el Hôl), or Father of Terror(s). The name ‘Sphinx’ may come from a Greek word meaning “to strangle” as, according to one legend, the Greek sphinx, often depicted as a winged lion with the head of a woman, had the habit of strangling and devouring those who could not answer her riddles. Another interpretation is that the word sphinx was derived, possibly through Greeks visiting Egypt, from the ancient Egyptian Shesep-ankh, sometimes translated as “living statue” or “living image,” a term used to refer to royal statues during the Old Kingdom.

I have extensively studied the nature and extent of the weathering and erosional features found on the Great Sphinx directly, under the numerous repairs to the Sphinx (some of which date back to Old Kingdom times), in the so-called Sphinx enclosure (the Sphinx sits in a hole or quarry, with its body below the level of the plateau behind it), and in the subsurface under and around the Sphinx. Based on my geological analyses, I have calculated that the oldest portions of the Sphinx date back to the period of approximately 7,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C. I arrived at this conclusion through a variety of independent means, such as correlating the nature of the weathering with the climatic history of the area, calculating the amount of rock eroded away on the surface and estimating how long this may have taken, and calibrating the depth of subsurface weathering around and below the Sphinx.

Key to my redating of the Sphinx is the interpretation that the weathering observed on the body and the walls of the Sphinx enclosure is not due to the arid desert conditions found in the region during the last four to five thousand years. Rather, the observed weathering resulted from rain, precipitation, and water runoff – and sufficient precipitation was available only during pre-Sahara conditions, prior to circa 3,000 B.C. Other geologists, such as Colin Reader and David Coxill (each working independently of me, and also independently of each other), have corroborated my analyses of the nature of the weathering and erosion, concluding that the causative agent was water and not wind and sand. I must note, however, that while Reader, Coxill, and I agree that the Sphinx is weathered by water and must date to an earlier period than the traditional attribution, we do not all agree on the same age estimate. In particular, Reader has argued that the Sphinx can still be accommodated into a very early dynastic timeframe and thus is perhaps only a few hundred years older than the traditional date of circa 2500 B.C. However, I firmly believe that the extent of the erosion and weathering firmly push the core body of the Sphinx into a much more remote period. Furthermore, Reader does not take into adequate account the subsurface data that Thomas Dobecki and I collected (see discussion below), which allows me to calibrate the rate of subsurface weathering and arrive at my age estimate for the Sphinx. My dating places the Sphinx well back into pre-dynastic times, a period when many suppose that the technology and social organization did not exist to create such a monument.

Even though the Sphinx exhibits water erosion, this erosion was clearly from precipitation and rain runoff, not from flooding or the rising of the Nile. I want to be clear about this, since some people have misrepresented my data as supporting the notion that the Sphinx witnessed “Noah’s Flood” or a worldwide deluge. Furthermore, fossil shells, sea urchins, and so forth can be found on the Giza Plateau, but these have nothing to do with the water erosion seen on the Sphinx. Rather, the fossil sea organisms are millions of years old and have weathered out of the limestone rocks from which the Sphinx, pyramids, and many other structures are built.

Concerning my redating of the Sphinx, I emphasize that I am comfortable attributing it to the period of circa 5,000 B.C. or a bit earlier. Could it be considerably older? Based on the geological data, and depending on how one interprets the data, possibly. However, I have never claimed an age for the Great Sphinx prior to the 7,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C. period. It is simply false when people state that I have confirmed the age of the Sphinx as being on the order of 10,500 B.C. It is also sometimes suggested that the leonine aspect of the Sphinx connects it to the constellation Leo, and thus with the precessional Age of Leo, placing the Sphinx in the period of circa 10,500 B.C. (if it was carved at the beginning of that age). I question this association, however, as I am not certain that the constellation of Leo as such was recognized some 12,000 or more years ago, and even if the Great Sphinx does represent or commemorate, in some aspect, the Age of Leo, that does not necessarily imply that it was sculpted during that age. Even more widely speculative is the idea that the Great Sphinx was carved not in the last Age of Leo, but in the preceding Age of Leo some 36,000 or so years ago. Another widespread notion is to view the leonine-human hybrid aspect of the Sphinx as a representation of Leo and Virgo combined, the masculine and feminine, the animal or beastly vitality and the human intellect united.

While most of the focus of, and controversy surrounding, my work has been on the Great Sphinx, to my mind the so-called Sphinx Temple – sitting directly in front of (east of) the Sphinx – is in many ways even more significant than the Sphinx itself from a construction and dating point of view. The Sphinx Temple is built of megalithic limestone blocks, many weighing tens of tons, assembled in a tightly enclosed space. How these blocks were maneuvered is difficult to fathom. Pertinent to our current theme, however, is the fact that the Sphinx Temple (or at least the original parts of the temple, as it too, like the Sphinx, was reworked and repaired in dynastic times) was built contemporaneously with the oldest portions of the Great Sphinx. The blocks from which the temple was constructed were removed from around the body of the Sphinx as the statue was carved. The sculptors of the Sphinx did not simply chisel, pound, and shovel out the excess rock they needed to remove; rather, they meticulously quarried it as huge blocks used to construct the Sphinx Temple. Although in ruins today, I consider the building of the Sphinx Temple to be an engineering feat even more incredible than the carving of the Great Sphinx, and this occurred in circa 5,000 B.C. or earlier.

We Never Forget a Face?

I must stress that in my assessment, the Great Sphinx of pre-dynastic times did not look like the Sphinx we see today. It is only what I refer to as the core body (the torso or trunk) of the Sphinx that dates back to that much earlier period. The front paws have been heavily reworked and repaired (today they are mostly covered with modern blocks of limestone), and the head is surely not the original head. I have always contended that the head of the Great Sphinx is out of proportion relative to the size of the body. It is too small. In my opinion, the head was originally larger, but it was damaged by weathering and erosion, and to “repair” it the ancients recarved the head, resulting in its relatively small size today. Originally the head may not have been that of a human. Although I have no hard evidence, my speculation is that the head was originally that of a lion, to fit the leonine body. As an aside, some years ago a noted Egyptologist refused to believe my observation that the current head of the Great Sphinx is too small for the body. He subsequently undertook an analysis of the proportions of many ancient Egyptian sphinxes, only to find that virtually all had similar head to body ratios, except for the Great Sphinx, in which case the head was proportionally smaller.

In my opinion, based on analyses of the weathering and chisel marks, as well as on stylistic considerations and the ethnicity of the head (clearly a “black African” or “Nubian” in my opinion), the current head of the Sphinx is a dynastic recarving, but probably older than the Fourth Dynasty. Some researchers have claimed that the current face of the Great Sphinx resembles the face found on statues of the pharaoh Khafre (builder of the second pyramid on the Giza Plateau), and have used this supposed evidence to support the attribution of the Sphinx to the period of Khafre, circa 2500 B.C. However, in the early 1990s forensic expert Frank Domingo (formerly with the New York City Police Department) undertook a detailed comparison of the face of the Sphinx and the face of Khafre, concluding that they certainly do not represent the same individual (and indeed, they do not appear to represent persons of the same race or ethnicity). In recent years some researchers have suggested that the face of the Sphinx represents that of Khufu (builder of the Great Pyramid), and either the Great Sphinx was ordered built by Khufu himself, or by his son Djedefre (Ra’djedef, who reigned for a short period between Khufu and Khafre) in the image of Khufu. Personally, I am not convinced that the current face of the Sphinx represents Khufu. As an aside, when Domingo first came out with the results of his analysis, I was teaching an evening college course in a local Massachusetts prison. I mentioned Domingo’s conclusions to the class and immediately one of the students commented (here I paraphrase, after all these years), without any apparent bitterness or sarcasm, “Oh, I know about Domingo. He’s good. His reconstructions resulted in my cousin being convicted of murder.”

I suspect the head of the Great Sphinx was recarved during the period of the First to Third dynasties (circa 2920 to 2575 B.C.). Stylistically, to my eye, it might fit this early dynastic period. And the African or Nubian ethnicity of the Sphinx might fit an earlier period when the southern element of Egypt had greater sway than during certain later periods of Egyptian history. One must also remember that the head may have been further altered in later dynastic times. For instance, the entire Great Sphinx may have been modified, repaired, and brightly painted at various periods in its history, including during the New Kingdom. The current head as we view it today has been damaged, apparently both by weathering and by vandalism over the ages, and is incomplete. The researcher Colette Dowell has suggested that the Sphinx appears to be missing the uppermost part of its skull, the region of the crown, or top of the head, chakra. Is this simply coincidental? Or was the crown purposefully removed for symbolic purposes? Also, to my eye the face of the Great Sphinx has always appeared to be either androgynous or female, and my personal intuition is that in fact it is a female face. Admittedly this is a subjective impression. Yes, parts of the Sphinx’s “beard” (actually a ceremonial false beard) have been found and now reside in various museums, but that proves nothing. The beard was added much later, and subsequently removed or lost again. At any rate, a beard on the Sphinx would be a symbol, such as of royal power and authority, and not indicative of the gender of the statue. I have seen more than one living African woman whose face strongly resembled that of the Great Sphinx.

Secret Chambers?

As part of our research on the Sphinx, geophysicist Thomas Dobecki and I undertook low-energy seismic studies around the Sphinx and elsewhere on the plateau. My primary concern with these studies was not to search for “buried treasure,” but to gather good data on the nature, degree, and depth of subsurface weathering, both around the Sphinx and in areas of confidently dated dynastic structures. Indeed, we acquired excellent data supporting my attribution of the Sphinx to 5,000 B.C. or earlier. However, we also discovered clear evidence of a cavity or chamber under the left paw of the Sphinx. Additionally, we found some lesser (and previously known) cavities under and around the Sphinx, and the data also indicated that there may be a tunnel-like structure running the length of the body under the Sphinx.

A chamber in the vicinity of the paws of the Sphinx was certainly interesting to me, but I did not put that much emphasis on it. However, upon publication of our data, I soon found that a number of parties considered the chamber to be of extreme interest and importance. I still remember well the day, sitting in my office between teaching classes, that I received a phone call from the Virginia Beach headquarters of the A.R.E. (Association for Research and Enlightenment, informally known as the Edgar Cayce Foundation). Unbeknownst to me, the American psychic Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) had predicted that a “Hall of Records” would be found in the general area where we had discovered the chamber. According to Cayce, the ancient continent of Atlantis had been destroyed circa 10,500 B.C. The survivors dispersed to the far corners of Earth, founding new offshoot civilizations, including what in time would come to be recognized as ancient Egypt. In several locations they had secreted libraries recording their history, science, and accomplishments, including in the region of the Great Sphinx. Furthermore, the representative of the A.R.E. informed me that my research on redating the Great Sphinx went a long way toward confirming the Cayce chronology of Atlantis and the building of structures on the Giza Plateau well before dynastic times. I found myself formally interviewed for the A.R.E.’s magazine, and I have spoken at their conferences in Virginia Beach. (To their credit, I would note that the A.R.E. has a history of attracting topnotch researchers to speak at some of their conferences, researchers who in some cases are clearly antithetical to the main tenets and interests of the organization. I have always found the leaders and members of the A.R.E. to be warm, friendly, open, and honest.)

It turns out that not only the members of the A.R.E. have a special interest in the discovery of chambers and tunnels under the Sphinx, but many other groups as well, such as various Rosicrucian and Masonic groups, who believe (with some good basis) that there is a complex network of tunnels and chambers below the surface of the Giza Plateau.

Questions I am often asked include: Where is the entrance to the chamber under the left paw of the Sphinx? Have the Egyptian authorities allowed you to explore the chamber, and if not, why not?

In answer to the first question, I have not located any entrance to the chamber on the surface. However, based on the seismic data and analyses, we found that just in front of (just east of) the Sphinx Temple, buried under the sand, there is a substantial drop in the bedrock. That is, if the sand and debris were removed from in front of the Sphinx Temple, it would be found that the temple sits atop a cliff with the Great Sphinx itself looming behind the temple. This must have been a very dramatic sight. I speculate that the entrance to the chamber under the paw of the Sphinx may be found in the cliff face.

To this date, the Egyptian authorities have not allowed me to explore the chamber that we found. Certainly, they are well aware that I would like to, and for the record, I have never been denied permission to do so outright; I have simply not yet been granted permission. I have some understanding of the complex intricacies and highly sensitive nature of exploring and excavating new archaeological finds in Egypt. I am not surprised that the authorities do not want to open more “cans of worms” at this time, and I am not an advocate of conspiracy theories – I am not aware of any credible evidence that the chamber has already been entered, as certain persons have contended. The area of the Sphinx is very open and public and it would be incredibly difficult to successfully hide such surreptitious activities. Even drilling into the chamber and inserting a miniature camera, as many have suggested, could risk damaging any artifacts that may be contained therein. In recent years, however, the Egyptians have begun, ever so slowly, to excavate the area in front of the Sphinx Temple. If they persist in their endeavors, at some point they should uncover the cliff we discovered using geophysics, and I will not be surprised if a door or opening, leading to a passage under the Sphinx Temple and thus into the chamber under the Sphinx, is eventually found. Something I have learned while working in Egypt is patience.

Meeting the Sphinx

How did I ever become involved with the Great Sphinx? I was first introduced to the problem of the age of the Sphinx in the late 1980s by the “independent Egyptologist” John Anthony West, perhaps best known for his studies and popularization of the Egyptological work of the philosopher and mathematician R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz (1887-1961), and for his guidebook titled The Traveler’s Key to Ancient Egypt. The way I met West was through a colleague then teaching in the same college as I; he had met West while teaching in Cairo. I quickly became interested in the problem of the age of the Sphinx, realizing that my own expertise in geology might shed light on the issue.

Even before I met West, however, I had given some thought to the Great Sphinx. As a teenager I loved ancient history, read profusely on the subject, and even acquired a few minor Egyptian antiquities from an aged fellow whose family had brought them out of Egypt when it was still legal to do so. But more directly applicable to my later research, I remember as a graduate student reading a couple of articles on the geology of the Great Sphinx.

In particular, a certain Egyptian researcher, now living and teaching in America, promulgated the notion that the Great Sphinx began as a yardang, that is, a natural hill or rock outcropping that had been weathered and shaped by the elements, primarily wind in the case of desert yardangs as found in Egypt. The ancient Egyptians, so the hypothesis went, saw in the yardang the crude shape of a Sphinx (sort of like seeing the shapes of animals or people in clouds), and decided to start chiseling and carving the yardang to turn it into an actual Sphinx. I remember sitting in the geology department graduate student lounge at Yale laughing over this crazy notion with my peers. Remember, to free the body of the Sphinx from the bedrock, large blocks of limestone were quarried and removed. We thought it was hilarious that someone would think that wind could somehow carve out multi-ton blocks from around the body of the Sphinx and reassemble them as a temple in front of the statue. Furthermore, the weathering features on the Sphinx (and mind you, we were basing this just on photos, as none of us had actually been to Egypt) did not appear to fit the yardang hypothesis. At most, perhaps the head of the Sphinx, which does sit above the level of the plateau, was once a yardang, but it has now been too heavily carved and recarved to tell for sure. We had our own theory: the author of the yardang hypothesis grew up in Egypt and as a small child visited the Great Sphinx. He was impressed by its size and majesty, and also noted the heavy weathering to the statue, but did not at that time pay attention to the details of the geological and cultural context. Years later, without revisiting the Sphinx to check the geology and location, he based his theory on those formative impressions from childhood.

Once I had traveled to Egypt to study the Great Sphinx firsthand, I reinvestigated the yardang hypothesis. As we had discussed in graduate school, it made absolutely no sense (except, perhaps, for the head), but there was one important aspect to it. The author of the yardang theory observed, and acknowledged, the very ancient weathering features still preserved on the body of the Sphinx. Indeed, one way to view the yardang theory is that it provides a way to explain how such incredibly ancient weathering can be found on a dynastic structure. According to the yardang theory, the weathering came first, followed by the carving of the Sphinx. But given the context, this is patently impossible. The body of the Sphinx and the walls of the Sphinx enclosure were clearly weathered after being carved, and the weathering bears on the age of the Sphinx.

My work researching the Sphinx was done on my own time without remuneration, and the travel expenses to Egypt were funded by a group, spearheaded by West, intent upon producing a documentary on the subject. The immediate result was The Mystery of the Sphinx (hosted by “Moses,” also known as Charlton Heston; Heston played the role of Moses in the famous 1956 Cecil DeMille movie The Ten Commandments), which aired on NBC in the United States the evening of 10 November 1993, and is now available on DVD.

Not long after I became “notorious” for my work on the Sphinx, a senior faculty member at my college (College of General Studies, Boston University; I have taught there full-time since 1984), now deceased, told me that I had managed to immortalize myself by connecting my name to what is arguably the greatest and most recognizable sculpture on Earth – though this was certainly never my intention.

An Unsuspecting Heretic

I first presented my analyses of the data on the Great Sphinx – coming to the conclusion that the core body dates well back to pre-dynastic times – at the 1991 annual meeting of the Geological Society of America (GSA). Before the formal presentation I happened to run into a colleague of mine, a very talented geologist whose specialty was stratigraphy, the exact field that pertained to my data and analyses of the Great Sphinx. I showed him my data and explained my conclusions. His response? He began to laugh. My heart sank to the pit of my stomach. I was sure I must have made some fundamental mistake to induce such laughter from him, and in the next hour I was scheduled to present my work in the public forum. I asked hesitantly what was wrong. He answered (again, a paraphrase after all these years), “Nothing, nothing at all. It is just so obvious. Hasn’t anyone ever looked at the Sphinx before? Where have all the Egyptologists been? Why didn’t they see this long ago?”

Some weeks after the 1991 GSA presentation, I heard from one of my former undergraduate professors, a man I had always respected, though never known well. He was scathing in his comments regarding my work on the Sphinx, vehemently contending that I was quite wrong in recasting the age as anything other than circa 2500 B.C. But, his arguments against me made no logical or scientific sense, as far as I could determine. Then it came out that he was a devout, and apparently somewhat fundamentalist, Christian (although by no means a creationist or a proponent of a young Earth), and basically he somehow viewed the implications of my redating of the Sphinx as questioning his religious faith (how, I am not exactly sure). Scientists are humans too, and their deep beliefs and long-held assumptions can certainly cloud their ability to think clearly.

At one Egyptological conference to which I was invited to speak, I gave a nice, stolid, presentation on the evidence for an older Sphinx. I did not get many comments from the audience, but afterwards I was approached by a very senior, elderly, and rather grandfatherly, Egyptologist. His comment to me, and I can only paraphrase it now as it was many years ago, was to the effect “I do not understand geology, and I cannot refute your evidence, but I know you are wrong. Now there are lots of rocks other than at Giza and in Egypt; I suggest you go study the rocks somewhere else.” By his demeanor and the tone of his voice, I took this as more than just a friendly suggestion. It was clear that he did not want me studying the Sphinx, and he was not beyond gently threatening me that there could be untold consequences if I persisted in my endeavors along such lines.

At another conference, to which I was invited to debate the age of the Great Sphinx, prior to the public discussions I was sharing some of my data with a member of the “opposition.” It was not that I was required to do so, but I shared my data of my own free will. I have never treated the controversy over the age of the Sphinx as a situation where I am determined to “win” and “prove” my hypothesis for an older Sphinx. Rather, my concern as a scientist and researcher is to gather data, share the data, and honestly follow the data to wherever it should lead. Anyway, I was showing this professional “geoarchaeologist” some of the seismic data that we had collected around and under the Sphinx. He was having a difficult time interpreting it; looking down at the table, I saw a potential problem. Gently, and trying not to embarrass him, I said “You might want to look at it this way” and I turned the charts around, as he had been trying to read them upside down. Even when viewing them in their correct orientation, he seemed not to be able to follow them. I quickly realized that despite his position at a major university, and a Ph.D. in a relevant field, this man had absolutely no clue as to what he was looking at or how to interpret the data, and he was too proud to ask for help. The rest of the so-called debate was not very illuminating from my point of view. I attempted to present and discuss real data while my opponents at best skirted the issues and at worst lowered themselves to ad hominem attacks and insults against me personally.

At the same conference, I ran into one of my “opponents” in a back hall, a man hailed as one of the world’s experts on the Great Sphinx. We were alone and standing face-to-face, eye-to-eye. He said to me something like, “You can’t really believe that the Sphinx is older than the Fourth Dynasty. You must know that is nonsense.” Clearly, he was attempting to appeal to my academic, orthodox side. I almost felt like he was trying to “save” me from the unholy alternative theorists and “New Age” camp. He then asked me some question about my analyses of the Sphinx data. I honestly no longer remember the question, but I remember that the tone of his voice was rather bitter and sarcastic. I proceeded to answer in detail as he just stared at me with a blank look on his face, saying nothing. Then, as I was in mid-sentence, he simply turned around and walked away. I realized afterwards that his “question” was meant as a rhetorical comment, and he had neither expected me to be able to answer it, nor dare try to answer it. When I did answer him, he was caught off-guard and apparently felt he had no other choice but to ignore me and walk away.

I have often felt that I am misunderstood when it comes to my work on the Sphinx. I am trained as a staid, traditional academic, with a Ph.D. from an Ivy League school (Ph.D. in geology and geophysics from Yale University, 1983) and a tenured teaching position. I think of myself as quite conventional, not as the radical alternative thinker that some have cast me. But, I believe in following the data to wherever it may lead, and my hypotheses and conclusions have not always gone over well with my traditional academic colleagues. For some years after first becoming involved with the Sphinx, realizing that the implications of an older Sphinx suggest – at least to some – a lost civilization as epitomized in Plato’s concept of Atlantis, I refused to actually say the word “Atlantis” in public for fear of being ridiculed and condemned by my more traditional colleagues in academia. Rather, I referred to the “A-word.” Sometimes I feel I straddle a tenuous existence between two worlds. I am not “normal” and “conventional” enough for the traditionalists, but I am not sufficiently “radical” and “far-out” for some members of the alternative camp. The Sphinx has taught me to live in my own world.

Notes Section:

For Further Reading:

Schoch, Robert M., with Robert Aquinas McNally. Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations. New York: Harmony Books, 1999. [See especially Chapter 2, “A Shape with Lion Body and the Head of a Man,” pp. 33-51.]

Schoch, Robert M., with Robert Aquinas McNally. Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2003. [See especially the appendix, “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza,” pp. 278-298.]

Schoch, Robert M., and Robert Aquinas McNally. Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005. [See especially Chapter 4, “A Certain Age,” pp. 61-81, and the section of the appendices titled “Seeking Wisdom on the Giza Plateau,” pp. 327-331.]

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epgrondine's picture
Member since:
23 October 2006
Last activity:
19 hours 37 min
Robert Schoch wrote:

...Concerning my redating of the Sphinx, I emphasize that I am comfortable attributing it to the period of circa 5,000 B.C. or a bit earlier. Could it be considerably older? Based on the geological data, and depending on how one interprets the data, possibly. However, I have never claimed an age for the Great Sphinx prior to the 7,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C. period. It is simply false when people state that I have confirmed the age of the Sphinx as being on the order of 10,500 B.C.

In short: The theosophist cult archaeologists need the Sphinx to be built by refugees from Atlantis, Contact me by email and I send you the whole story.

While I can go with 5,000-4,000 BCE or so, I think in your geological analysis you ignored the habit of visitors of urinating on the structure for several thousand years.

E.P. Grondine
Man and Impact in the Americas

thefloppy1's picture
Member since:
1 May 2004
Last activity:
30 weeks 4 days

so if the Sphinx has been urinated on for, your words, several thousand years, then you put the Sphinx at a much older date? Unless they are still urinating on it now.
I'm pretty confident in Robert's ability as a geologist so he may know how to tell even water over a large area erosion.
I fail to understand how some urine could erode away any structure in the way the Sphinx is. If it did then that is a lot of urine.

"Life can be whatever you want it to be, as long as you do what your told."
LRF.

earthling's picture
Member since:
22 November 2004
Last activity:
1 week 2 days

I know that I'm not really qualified, only being from the engineering side of things. However, to judge the difference I would propose comparing water erosion in hard to reach places, and easy to reach places of this large structure. If urinating was a significant factor, the erosion would be uneven.

But I may be missing some spiritual aspect or other.

----
We are the cat.

paragshah's picture
Member since:
10 May 2010
Last activity:
4 years 16 weeks

The Great sphinx of Giza was carved from inferior quality limestone bedrock and was probably originally coated with plaster and painted. Traces of the original paint can still be seen near one ear. The Sphinx is about 73.5 meters or 241.1 feet long and 20 meters or 65.6 feet high.

dashour's picture
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6 July 2004
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Robert, you just gave us one of best defenses of an alternative idea along with the most lucid insight into the closed minded arrogance of Egyptologists I have ever read. Way to go. That was a fascinating read.

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There are old stories that claim the existence of a second Sphinx at Giza. With the recent revelations at the Tomb of the Birds, another statue doesn't seem out of the realm of possibility. Some try to place the matching sculpture on the western side of the plateau, some flanking the Sphinx, and still others across the ancient course of the Nile to the east.

Dr. Schoch, do you have any views or information regarding a second Sphinx?

jupiter.enteract's picture
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Surely epgrondine is joking about the urine theory of limestone erosion. At least I hope he/she is...

Delaiah's picture
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If his urine is dissolving stone, he might want to investigate his favorite beverage further!

More importantly, where is this experiment taking place? I, for one, want to stay upwind. Plus, bums and drunks will look at me funny if I ask them to autograph a copy of "Man and Impact in the Americas".

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Very enjoyable summary of Schoch's work. I am surprised that he's also doing paleontology, in that he keeps running into fossils at his lectures. No doubt he feels the same sensations that Galileo felt about heliocentricity. It's good to know that science is weathering away the centuries of speculation and egotism and that people will be forced to confront the facts with open minds instead of their pet theories and superstitions. Hopefully we'll one day enjoy conclusive answers to these elusive mysteries.

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It is simply false when people state that I have confirmed the age of the Sphinx as being on the order of 10,500 B.C.

Still, it must've been sweet to catch that fleeting image of the Sphynx with its lion head & all —just as you theorize— in the movie 10,000 B.C. ;)

It's not the depth of the rabbit hole that bugs me...
It's all the rabbit SH*T you stumble over on your way down!!!

Red Pill Junkie
_______________
@red_pill_junkie

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I still think it's a statue of a dog.

Regards, Kathrinn

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I see the replies to my first post have turned into something of a Rorschach test. A "Robshoch test", if you will.

The effects of urination over time have been seen at other ancient sites. As I understand it, the water in the urine evaporates, leaving salt crystals to form, which then pop loose bits of the exposed stone surface. This is then followed by gravity and stress losses.

Men generally urinate standing up, while women will squat facing a wall with one hand held out for support. As the sand infilled the Sphinx enclosure, the height of the streams would have risen.

The Great Atlantic Impact Mega-Tsunami and its date are set out in "Man and Impact in the Americas", as well as the dating confusion Plato introduced in his construction of his moral fable of Atlantis.

E.P. Grondine
Man and Impact in the Americas

jupiter.enteract's picture
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You do know that much of the Sphinx (and most of the surrounding enclosure) has been buried in sand for a good deal of its history, no? So are you suggesting that the urine somehow made its way down through the layers of sand to erode the rock?

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It's always striking to see so called scientists adhering with religious fundamentalism to various beliefs and world views. It's not that they aren't entitled to those views, it's just that they are sometimes so insecure about their "stand" that they bluster and blabber like children at the slightest challenge. Such behavior is the antithesis of the scientific procedure they allegedly revere.

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By the way, the "urine" idea is certainly compelling too. Urine is quite corrosive and will collect at depth in soils in areas of frequent "use."

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However compelling this idea may be (if it is), if the Sphinx was something to be revered, why on earth would the local inhabitants go and piss on it?

Regards, Kathrinn

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emlong wrote:

It's always striking to see so called scientists adhering with religious fundamentalism to various beliefs and world views. It's not that they aren't entitled to those views, it's just that they are sometimes so insecure about their "stand" that they bluster and blabber like children at the slightest challenge. Such behavior is the antithesis of the scientific procedure they allegedly revere.

You ought to try working in impact studies - you get it from both sides, which is what Schoch mentioned in his essay. My operative statement is I have been wrong before and I reserve the right to be wrong both now and in the future. However, that will not stop me from providing my best estimate. Nor from considering the estimates of others.

When you're on the cutting edge, you bleed.

In regards to the Sphinx, the matter at hand, I can support pre-dynastic use of the Giza plateau; I think that the megaliths in that megalithic temple there were painted, and thus the "Hall of Records" has already been found. It's just that it doesn't have any records anymore. Whether the Sphinx was a part of that, and later remodeled, I don't know; or whether later pyramids were built in alignment with it, I don't know.

"I don't know" is a good answer when you don't know.

E.P. Grondine
Man and Impact in the Americas

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As suspected the inscrutable sphinx still has much to hide. I'd be concerned about two things opening the tunnel and spaces under the Sphinx. If built during more verdant times, likely there was some sort of air vent arrangement, probably sealed off during repairs. Thus whatever might be in those spaces may degrade quickly when oxygen is admitted to the space. Possibly an inert gas might be blown into the space and explorers don special suits before entering.
The second concern is that if the area is moist, that mold and rot may have taken its toll long ago.
As a writer on Mythology, (MythicCornucopia.com) I give free reign to all opinions, until the truth becomes incontrovertible.

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as far as proportion is concerned, the head of the sphinx is way too small to be the original head in my opinion.

There was a video on the net recently said to be showing a nocturnal dig at the sphinx april 2010,

See video

"We wish to reiterate : The original video is not Hollywood quality,

(which is not surprising in the circumstances,) but it is untamperered and unedited...

and it contains very clear PROOF of where it was taken and when it was taken,

and with understandable dialogue in the background.

The clip was presented in its edited form specifically following multiple

urgent requests to do so in order to prevent the film maker from being murdered.

Now those opposing know that everyone is aware of it!"

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I'm still getting used to Schoch's new hairstyle. Just waiting for him to say, "Dating the Sphinx is so easy a cave man could do it". Sorry Robert, couldn't resist that one!

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P.S. By the way, I agree with Robert that there is a female aspect of the Sphinx. http://www.domainofman.com/forum/index.c...

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While I suppose it's possible that the Sphinx is older than the Giza pyramids, I must say that I find it unlikely. I can see how the body of the Sphinx could be weathered from many thousands of years, considering it's clearly a natural outcropping that just happened to resemble a lion's body. The carved part, the head, looks not very weathered at all. How the enclosure walls got weathered so much, I don't know, but those walls look very much like they were made after the causeway that it's against.

The Giza pyramids can be dated to the late 2500s BC, so the Sphinx is probably from that same era. How do I propose that the pyramids can be dated? Kate Spence had the right idea. The alignment is based on stars, just not the ones she thought. Her method produces dates which are far too recent to be plausible. However, the star Dubhe, in the Big Dipper, works perfectly. They simply aligned the pyramids to Dubhe in the North at the very time when Sirius culminated in the South sky. Dubhe was the northern counterpart to Sirius in the South. The Egyptians could hardly have missed the fact that Dubhe was at practically due North at the same time as Sirius was due South. We know that the Pharaohs used the Big Dipper for temple alignments because we have it recorded on the walls of the Temple of Hathor in Dendera. Dubhe may have been associated with Hathor. We know they used the Big Dipper, "foreleg of an ox" for the alignment and now it is obvious which star in that asterism was actually used.

This produces a perfect dates curve corresponding to the azimuths of the various pyramids, from Snefru to Neferirkare. It puts Snefru's pyramids in the early 2600s and Neferirkare in 2518 BC. Khufu's pyramid is dated to about 2595-2600 BC, depending which part of it you take the azimuth from. Menkaure's pyramid is dated to about 2555-58 BC. Khafre's Pyramid has the same azimuth as the South side of the Great Pyramid (J. H. Cole, 1925 survey) and was almost certainly copied from it rather than independently aligned. I put some images of this on a web page I made recently. I just solved this a few weeks ago actually. http://giza2595.bravehost.com/

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In regard to the face of the Sphinx, it most resembles Djedefre. There is a statue of his head, which can easily be found on the web, which is believed to have been broken off from a smaller version of the Sphinx. If you compare this face to that of the Sphinx, you will find that the mouth is exactly the same. The lips of the Sphinx are unusually wide and somewhat jutting from the face. Khafre's mouth is not like that at all. It is fairly similar to Khufu's mouth, on the tiny figurine of him, but even more like Djedefre's.

Now to explain how that could have happened. The second pyramid has the same azimuth as the core of the Great Pyramid, about 5.5 arc minutes. It is possible that both large pyramids were started at the same time by Khufu, around 2600 BC. He could have built that pyramid for his son or some other important person. Alternatively, he may have left the second pyramid in an unfinished state and concentrated on the Great Pyramid. Khafre may then have completed the pyramid decades later.

My point here is that after Djedefre became Pharaoh, he may have built the Sphinx and its temple, next to the causeway built by Khufu. Djedefre built his own pyramid North of Giza, probably because of his religious differences with his father, which may be why KHufu built the second pyramid for Khafre instead of Djedefre. Djedefre would, however, probably have wanted to build some sort of monument at Giza. What better way to leave his mark than with his face on top of a naturally leonine outcropping of the type commonly found in the deserts all around that region. I forget the word for them, but they do commonly have a lion shape to them. He would also have built the Sphinx Temple, which explains why it is so different from the Khafre valley temple right beside it.

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I guess what I posted earlier about the Sphinx being a natural outcropping wasn't really plausible, considering that the body is below ground level. I think the Sphinx really is older than the pyramids, though, much older. The southern wall of the enclosure was angled to align with the sun when it rose at 14 degrees South of East, one of the "cross quarter points" of the year. The only time the sun rose at that angle while also being in front of the constellation Leo was around 19,500 BC, stunning though that sounds.

In order for Leo's head to still be visible just before sunrise, the sun has to rise between Leo's paws. Any further ahead of Leo and it would be to light out to even see the constellation at all. So it would have to be at least as far back as about 19,000 and probably no further than about 20,000, when it's down to Leo's chest area.

Of course, it may not be that the Sphinx was meant to be looking at Leo while the sun rose in the direction of the enclosure wall. But what if? Certainly would explain the advanced weathering of the enclosure. The second pyramid's causeway may simply have been built along the top of the wall, knowing that the wall was already in the desired direction. Here's a pic showing what I mean http://tinypic.com/r/m9syzp/6

farang's picture
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Always enjoy your take on things. Cautiously open minded. Refreshing.

You state you feel comfortable with 5,000 BC or a bit earlier for the construction date, yes? Does the Gobekli Tepi finds give you confidence to lean towards "a bit earlier" than that?

They are giving a date of 12,000 years ago, or 10,000 BC for GT. You do not seem favor the 10,500 BC date some theorize for the Sphinx.
You feel like you have solid findings to limit it to no more than 5,000 BC or so?

I am curious to see what the final interpretation of the carvings of animal figures are on the pillars at Gobekli Tepi. Just hunters drawing their kills? Very possibly. Or...is it the first attempt at forming constellations as Earthly figures? A Zodiac so to speak? It is a temple. Why would hunters hang out there, wouldn't that be Shaman/Priest territory? No cooking or eating or living occurred there according to the German running the dig. Sounds like a temple to me.

I am also wondering if it once had wooden floors/huts on top of these T shaped pillars...like the Indonesians built and the ones that settled Guam called "latte stones." Any indication of wear or attachment points on top of these T's? I wonder. I know some have grooves/damage from plow disc running over them.

Secondly, you've read or heard about the underground city found under Avaris? The Hyksos capital? "Tel-A-Dab" or something like that. Quite startling, and maybe full of interesting evidence. They (Hawass) said it is huge: a full sized city in press release. Please, get info on the underground city at Avaris and tell us what you find out.

I believe this is what one should label the "Kingdom of Judah." "Idj-taui", the Nile Delta. These will prove to be the proto "Israelites" when all is said and done. Placed there as foreign (or maybe "Vichy"-type) rulers by the conquering Hittites. The Hittites who called their court officers "Rabi." Their king at that time, the Hittite king, was a "Ya" king. Yes. Interesting.

This is also the location where the British Museum just published their findings (online) of Ramses' II temple. Looks just like what is called "Solomon's Temple", dimension-wise.
Probably a very good reason for that......if you get my drift.

Thanks!

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Hello,

The Sphinx and three pyramids are markers of time of new αώ (alpha-omega) cycle that will be finished after few centuries in 2,400 ± 50. This is a message sent by ancient civilization to us about finished old αώ (alpha-omega) cycle. Ancient anniversary Zep-Tepi had been sacred to new αώ (alpha-omega) cycle and was the proof about the beginning of the new αώ (alpha-omega) epoch.
We have a greatest epoch of the prohibited History. Lots of artifacts of the pre-flood history are forbidden by false "fathers" of the mainstreams. 30,000 Atlantian or Olmecian artifacts found by Scottish Mineralogist and Archeologist William Niven are hidden in the museums of New York and Mexico. Lots of so called "researches" are written for the money, not for the Truth. They could rise lots of money for the falsification of the our real history. "Fathers" of the falsifications led by Dr. Zahi Hawass and Dr . Mark Lehner have the ostrich position against the modern discoveries made by many investigators. These video clips in the link are taken from the interesting investigations and closely connected to the much more sensational discovery that the Atlantis City. If you know Geology can understand everything!
http://www.cosmogeology.ge/chapter-25.htm

The Giza complex is sacred to the global geo-catastrophe that started on 21 October 12,475 (10,465 B.C.) years ago. Sphinx indicates epoch of the event, i.e. Leo's epoch. Three stars of the Orion's belt indicate the three Giza pyramids at the event boundary and causeway from the middle pyramid to the sphinx indicates sunrise, i.e. 21-22, 23 October during the event. Of 21 October to 23 October continued EB geo-transfer and terrible earthquakes that formed last global deluge all over the Earth. Under the crust situates huge Magma Ocean. Approximately deepness of the fiery Magma Ocean is measured ~400km. Mantle plumes discovered by many geologists are the proofs about powerful liquid waves within the Magma Ocean. The waves are formed by penetration or rapid movement of the fiery liquid masses from the outer nucleus into the Magma Ocean (Asthenosphere). Reversal and recovery of the global Magnetic field, powerful wave deformation of the crust, runaway subductions and kilometers high tsunamis and partially or global extinctions are the side effects only.

The Giza project began by survived Atlantians after 10,465 B.C. and finished approximately in 10,400 B.C. Of course the project had been sacred to last global deluge. Thus minimal age of the Sphinx and three pyramids is that - 10.400+2010=12.410 years. It has no alternative. Whole Elite of the modern Geology want to say to egyptologist that the Sphinx has the much older age but the egyptologists have the ostrich position ??????

http://www.cosmogeology.ge/chapter-(31).pdf

http://www.cosmogeology.ge/chapter-(32).pdf

http://www.cosmogeology.ge/chapter-(33).pdf

Thus the megalithic complex of the Giza sacred to last global deluge in 10,465B.C. To explain each periodical global deluge we have the additional proofs as well. There are discovered shift and reversal of the magnetic poles by many scientists. Scientific falsifications are interrelated to the wrong authorities and they have the ostrich position against my discoveries but the reversal events have been discovered by best scientists, best intellectuals of the world. Each reversal event has an interesting and only explanation. These events are the proofs about powerful liquid waves within outer nucleus. Only one force of the universe can do it. This is an amazing geological force EB geo-transfer. It causes penetration or rapid movement the outer nucleus masses under the crust and mantle plumes, powerful liquid waves within Magma Ocean, deformation all over the crust, kilometers high tsunamis and shifting all lithosphere platforms over the 1000-1500km. Shift of the geographical poles are discovered by many scientists as well. shift of all lithosphere platforms over the 1000-1500km means drifting of the continents for few days over the 1000-1500km. Only one force of the universe can do something like this - powerful liquid waves under the crust, within Magma Ocean.

Thus future of the modern geology is that Gradualism + catastrophic plate tectonics [periodical global deluges all over the earth]. It means that every 7,000-13,000 years runaway subduction and drifting of the continents for few days over the 1000-1500km.

Best wishes,
K. Margiani

Founder new field of science Cosmogeology

K. Margiani's picture
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The Egyptology – pseudoscientific field.
I’m very sorry but this is the truth. Modern Egyptology is died and needs to be recovered from the new roots. Triumph of the false degrees and false authorities have already produced dead full crisis in the historical sciences as well. Who is the blame?
1. For decades falsification of the mankind’s history by false degrees.
2. Lots of “researches” on ancient history, written for the money, not for the truth.
3. The false dating for the pre-flood (before 10,465 B.C.) and post-flood megalithic constructions.
4. Absolutely ignorance of the geological data in dating for the pre-flood (before 10,465 B.C.) and post-flood megalithic constructions.
5. Non-scientific hysteria in the mass-media against true discoveries on forgotten greatest history.
6. The amazing discoveries by Rene Schwaller de Lubicz, John Anthony West, Dr. Robert schoch, Graham Hancock, Prof. Charles H. Hapgood, William Niven and other intellectuals including my ground breaking investigations.
7. Silence by many Egyptologists about the amazing discoveries.
8. Selective investigations with disappearance of the many unacceptable data.
….etc.
Falsification of the greatest pre-flood and post-flood history, mainly began by first Egyptologists and have come to the extreme limit by modern Egyptologists led by greatest false-makers and false authorities of the historical sciences: Dr. Zahi Hawass and Dr . Mark Lehner. Restoration date of the pre-flood and post-flood megalithic construction does not mean that the amazing artifacts have been built at the dynastic epoch?????
I’m ready to defend each my word in the debates or in the law-court. I’ve ordered the place in the “scientific graveyard” for the Egyptology. An amazing truth on pre-flood and post-flood history is decoded and all old books on history should be edited to rewrite…
Position by the “Ostriches and ignorantes” have already killed the science and the Egyptology is "rotten to the bones".
I’m very sorry once again on my world announcement – Egyptology as a science has already DIED!…

Best wishes

K. Margiani
The world's first expert on Atlantis
Founder new field of science Cosmogeology

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All well-known pyramids of Egypt: "Khufu's", "Khafre's", "Menkaure's", Djoser's, Meidum, bent and red pyramids are sacred to Atlantis people, to revere souls of the Atlantis people. Additionally the Giza complex exactly indicates the astronomical date of the deluge (22±1 October 10,465B.C.). Thus the Giza complex had been sacred to global deluge in 10,465B.C. as well. Symbolical graves in the pyramids have been sacred to victims, to their souls. The treasures, things and tools in the closed rooms of the pyramids are the heavenly gifts for the souls.

See video

Best wishes,
K. Margiani
Founder new field of science Cosmogeology

K. Margiani's picture
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Sensational news for the mankind and the ground breaking news for the modern Egyptologists!
Deadlines for the Giza complex (Three pyramids and Sphinx) and other four epochal pyramids!

Giza Complex → ≈ 10,400 B.C.
1. Red Pyramid → 30 June 10,172 B.C. (1- st Thoth → first epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge)
2. Bent Pyramid → 3 July 8,699 B.C. ([2 step] 1- st Thoth → Second epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge)
3. Meidum Pyramid → 6 July 7,226 B.C. ([3 step] 1- st Thoth → Third epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge)
-------
-------
6. Step Pyramid → 15 July 2,807 B.C. ([6 step] 1- st Thoth → sixth epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge)
The Giza complex had been built by survived Atlantians. Using Intellectual and technical forces of the survived colonies the complex was sacred to Atlantis people to revere souls of the people. Using the stellar coordinates of the Sun, Leo and Orion, exact date of the Deluge had been written in the complex. Of course the complex was sacred to last global deluge as well.
1. Using survived metallic instruments and geo-polymeric technologies Deadline for the Red Pyramid was interrelated to Egyptian epochal new year 1- st Thoth, → first epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge.
The pyramid had been built by Intellectual and technical forces of the survived colonies. Red pyramid was sacred to Atlantis people to revere souls of the people.
2. Using survived metallic instruments and geo-polymeric technologies Deadline for the Bent Pyramid was interrelated to Egyptian epochal new year 1- st Thoth, → second epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge.
The pyramid had been built by Intellectual and technical forces of the survived colonies. Bent Pyramid has two steps and was sacred to Atlantis people to revere souls of the people.
3. Using remaining metallic instruments Deadline for the Meidum Pyramid was interrelated to Egyptian epochal new year 1- st Thoth, → Third epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge.
The pyramid had been built by Intellectual and technical forces of the survived colonies. Meidum pyramid has three steps and was sacred to Atlantis people to revere souls of the people. Assimilated generation of the Atlantis people because of inter race wedding: kings, territorial rulers, elites, priests, etc worldwide could not save the ancient knowledge and technologies. Using limestone of the huge pre-flood pyramid, Meidum pyramid had built on base of the pre-flood pyramid. Survived base of the pre-flood pyramid has the pre-flood geographical orientations. Meidum pyramid has the modern geographical orientations.
------- For millenniums metallic instruments
have been eaten by corrosion.
------- For millenniums the assimilated generation to primitive
aborigines could loss almost all wisdom and technologies.
------- For millenniums survived cities built by Atlantians
worldwide have been destroyed by wild tribes.
6. Using new bronze instruments Deadline for the Djoser’s step Pyramid was interrelated to Egyptian epochal new year 1- st Thoth, → Sixth epochal heliacal rise of the star Sirius after the global deluge.
The pyramid had been built by intellectual and technical forces of the Egyptian people led by elites – assimilated generation of the pre-flood race from Atlantis. The step pyramid has six steps and was sacred to Atlantis people to revere souls of the people.
The amazing and impressive things made by Atlantians have been discovered in the Djoser’s step pyramid only. The closed (secret) rooms of the Red, Bent, Meidum and the Giza pyramids are awaiting discoverers still. We have the proofs on archeological working at the dynastic epoch to find the closed secret rooms in the pyramids. Pharaohs were looking for treasures, things, weapons …etc made by Atlantis.
Symbolical meaning of the four epochal pyramids (red, bent, medium and step) is a Garden of Eden → Dim stars under the Orion’s belt.
Thus falsifications of the mankind’s History are decoded!
I’m sure the Falsifiers are “glad”!
http://vixra.org/abs/1102.0053
Atlantis had been sunken in the Atlantic Ocean in 10,465 B.C.
There are many left-handed individuals in the Indo-European race still and among the Negroids as well.
Ruler of the most powerful country is a left-handed individual – Obama.
Wandering genes of the left-handed race have many individuals of the world.
These genes are dispersed in the Indo-European race mainly.
Suddenly these genes can explode in your generation, please don’t wonder!
Please don’t wonder if you are an assimilated individual of the natural left-handed race from Atlantis.
Etymology of the word Atlantian came from Atl-atum “souls of water”
Most famous pre-flood joke was that – “Even the blood is a blue”
Name of a member of the aristocracy came from Atlantis – “Blue-blooded”
Elites of the almost all countries; kings, queens, priests, aristocracy…etc came from Atlantis.
Everything started from the pre-flood agriculture development worldwide.
Name of the Atlantic Ocean is interrelated to Atlantis
Source of all myths and legends generally is interrelated to Atlantis.
…etc
http://www.cosmogeology.ge/chapter_files...

Best wishes
K. Margiani
Founder new field of science Cosmogeology

K. Margiani's picture
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Dear Robert Schoch and at all!
To understand the Sphinx and other artifacts we have to know on last global deluge - 10,465B.C.
http://www.cosmogeology.ge/chapter-(32).pdf
-ABSTRACT-
This is an interesting revolution research for the future Geology. Before the catastrophic plate tectonics has a pseudoscientific status, modern geology has no real future for the development. Rulers (top-scientists) of the modern Geology are much more attentive on scientific problems. I’m ready to defend each my word in the debates. Mankind is at the next extinction boundary [128]. We have to recognize future danger. There are three different detonator forces for the future global geo-catastrophe (apocalypse): 1) An asteroid (comet) impact, 2) A man-made impact (powerful nuclear explosion [127]). 3) A strong earthquake caused by the extreme lunar perigee at the minimal magnetic intensity boundary 2÷12mT. Lots of geniuses have tried to understand future date of apocalypses, including Newton. I have no suspect, on support by modern mainstream geologists. I’ve proved in the Georgian investigation that the pre-flood planetary empire Atlantis had been destroyed by man-made impact (powerful nuclear explosion). Mankind is very near to repeat the old mistake, to be destroyed by powerful neutron repulsion forces.
In the revolution geological research is proved – future of modern geology has an interesting real model and it has no alternative.

Gradualism + Catastrophic plate tectonics.

Best wishes
K. Margiani
The world's first expert on Atlantis
Founder new field of science Cosmogeology

K. Margiani's picture
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Dear Robert Schoch and at all!
Please help me to understand the exact date written in the Dendera zodiac – Death of Osiris.
I have no the special Astronomical Program
1. epoch — Scorpion (15,875÷15,283)B.C.
2. Death time — 12 March ÷ 19 April (Pisces)
3. Mercury — between Pisces and Aquarius constellations — Visible
4. Venus — at the end of Aries; at the Pisces’ boundary — Invisible
5. The Moon — overcome Aries’ boundary — Invisible
6. Mars — above the Capricorn constellation (in the middle) — Visible
7. Jupiter — between the Gemini’s and Cancer’s constellations — Visible
8. Saturn — between the Libra’s and Virgo’s constellations — Visible
9. Uranus — above the Spica (α Virgo) — Visible

Please write answer here. Thank you advanced
P.S. I’m sure Robert and his friends have very interest – how old is the Osireion? My dating is very interesting. Here is no place to explain everything. Thus age of the Osireion is that ~(15283÷15280)B.C.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Osirei...

K. Margiani's picture
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NEWS-2012
------------------------
1. Supersonic and Reactive Crafts of the Atlantis Planetary Empire
http://frontiers-of-apocalypses.blogspot...
2. Three Greatest Pharaohs of the Pre-dynastic Free Egypt
http://frontiers-of-apocalypses.blogspot...
3. The Important Capitol Hill of the Pre-flood Planetary Empire Atlantis
http://frontiers-of-apocalypses.blogspot...
4. Apocalypse and Temporary Independence in Egypt
http://frontiers-of-apocalypses.blogspot...
5. Who Recorded the Dates of Last Three Apocalypses in Ankhor Wat?
http://frontiers-of-apocalypses.blogspot...
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For decades mainstream scientists have the Ostrich position against magnificent discoveries. They do not want to see beyond the old teaching – “beyond the sand”. Teaching old false is fully acceptable for the mainstreamers. You can help young generation and many others. Publishing «Forbidden real histories» in the other mass media, you will protect mind of many people from false attack by mainstreamers.
For decades we have no financial support by government and absolutely ignorance and boycott by mainstream science. Hypocrisy, arrogance, pride, anger, indignation have no limits by counterfeiters of sciences in relation to the dissidents.
We are working for mankind to explain truth. Our favorite information about Forbidden True History and Magnificent Discoveries on Atlantis you can find in the links.

Favorite publications on Pre-Flood Civilization – Atlantis
Into Russian: http://www.cosmogeology.ge/russian-page.htm
Into English: http://www.cosmogeology.ge/english-page.htm
K.L. Margiani
Founder New Field of Science Cosmogeology.
The First Expert in the World on Atlantis.

logic-lenz's picture
Member since:
22 August 2012
Last activity:
1 year 32 weeks

This guy is a great explorer, researcher,and physicist...I just discovered him about 1 year ago...and have been mesmerized ever since.
He has some interesting theories on the pyramids coming into resonance...
Alex Putney..
humanresonance.org

K. Margiani's picture
Member since:
4 October 2010
Last activity:
1 year 11 weeks

Sensational book on antediluvian civilization - Atlantis!
We’ve decoded to you and published in the book: the Atlantis alphabet, antediluvian engraved writing in the Libya and Baalbek, forgotten cartouche of Hermes Trismegistus, nuclear War,Aryan (Atlantian) dictionary etc... Each customer of the book can study, many primordial words of the Atlantis language, from the smaller dictionary. This is an amazing and most sensational book ever written. Thank you in advance, to read our investigations! ↓↓↓

The Forgotten Nuclear World War Near The Post-Flood Boundary 10,400÷10,350bc
https://www.createspace.com/4249819
HOW I DISCOVERED THE REAL SUNKEN ATLANTIS ISLES BEYOND THE GIBRALTAR
https://www.createspace.com/4251067
Best Wishes!
Kakha Margiani
-Egyptologist and Atlantologist.
-Founder of Cosmogeological Science.
-First Expert in the World on Atlantis.
-Expert of pre-dynastic cartouches.
-Founder of new Egyptology

K. Margiani's picture
Member since:
4 October 2010
Last activity:
1 year 11 weeks

My next book: HOW I DISCOVERED THE REAL SUNKEN ATLANTIS ISLES BEYOND THE GIBRALTAR http://www.shopmybook.com/en/blog/50506
How I found many compelling scientific evidences for the existence of Atlantis Civilization. How the antediluvian but artificially rejuvenated majestic megalithic complexes (Teotihuacán, Concordia, Parthenon, Baalbek) and their antediluvian geographical orientation helped to do the century discoveries: prime meridian of the antediluvian world and the sunken capitol hill of the pre-flood Planetary Empire Atlantis. How the knowledge of Geology and other sciences, as well as Kircher's maps and other post-flood and pre-flood maps helped to discovery 10 sunken Atlantis Isles beyond the Gibraltar. You will find in the book plenty evidences about the existence of the Atlantis and artifacts of antediluvian civilization. How the scientific branches of Geology, Astronomy, Cosmology, Physics, Genetics, Paleo-climatology...etc, are interrelated in Atlantology and why American atlantologists limited my rights in the Atlantology. How the Insula California is interrelated with the sunken 10 Atlantis Isles. How the legendary area Hyperborea is interrelated to pre-flood D'area.
http://www.shopmybook.com/en/blog/50506
Best Wishes!
Kakha Margiani
-Egyptologist and Atlantologist.
-Founder New Field of Science Cosmo-geology.
-First Expert in the World on Atlantis.
-Expert of pre-dynastic cartouches.
-Founder of new Egyptology

Nostradamus's picture
Member since:
1 May 2004
Last activity:
4 days 1 hour

I take it that you are joking?

I agree that the Sphinx is obviously much older than that proposed by main-stream experts, and yes, the new discoveries in Turkey (G.T) are opening new theories in current perception of the history of civilisation.

And the basic story of Atlantis and flood myths must have some truth in them, but hard evidence is required. One step at a time is the way forward, not flights of fancy.

To get the Sphinx and associated temple re-dated would be a great first step.

Nostra

ciamarra's picture
Member since:
19 April 2007
Last activity:
27 weeks 2 days

seeing atlantis movie as a child left a great impression on me.
clearly i always held open to it having some truth but only mention of it was with plato.

clearly scientists want evidence to link it somehow.
in 1994 Göbekli Tepe find was known.

immediately most thought of stone pillars and alignments of the equinoxs and solstices in connection to some type of ritual or workship.

clearly such a older civilization than ancient egypt i wonder if there could be a connection to a older civilization as well, simple fact such construction and star or sun or planet workships couldnt happen overnite. its probable older finds are around.

anyhow strictly based on my analyst of what i see there, its in my professional opinion, that some of their knowledge was send to ancient egypt.

based on what i see, i clearly believe ancient egyptian knowledge was obtained from these people or destinations, so i have a contradiction believe in what robert bauval believes in black genesis.

ciao clemente

emlong's picture
Member since:
18 September 2007
Last activity:
8 hours 28 min

"And the basic story of Atlantis and flood myths must have some truth in them, but hard evidence is required. One step at a time is the way forward, not flights of fancy."

I love "flights of fancy" and am enough of an adult to know when it is a flight and when it is backed up with facts. Fancy is part of the process of thinking - always has been, always will be. Many's the time I have made some outlandish statement just to listen to someone's response to it and thereby having learned something anew I fly off again until land is finally sighted. That's is how discovery happens.

K. Margiani's picture
Member since:
4 October 2010
Last activity:
1 year 11 weeks

[Moderator note: I have allowed a couple of these posts in recent times for interested readers. But please do not spam your books any further in the TDG comments area]
.
Excellent Trilogy for the Mankind on Forgotten and Forbidden Hystory:

[edit]
Best Wishes!
Kakha Margiani
-Egyptologist and Atlantologist.
-Founder of Cosmo-Geological Science.
-First Expert in the World on Atlantis.
-Expert of pre-dynastic cartouches.
-Founder of new Egyptology