News Briefs 04-09-2017

Welcome, to the days that didn't exist...

Thanks @mpesce.

Quote of the Day:

Capitallism can no more be 'persuaded' to limit growth than a human being can be 'persuaded' to stop breathing. Attempts to 'green' capitalism, to make it 'ecological', are doomed by the very nature of the system as a system of endless growth.

Murray Bookchin

News Briefs 01-09-2017

”We shall not cease from exploration. And the end of all our exploring, will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time.”

Quote of the Day:

“I am moved by fancies that are curled, Around these images, and cling:
The notion of some infinitely gentle, Infinitely suffering thing.”

T.S. Eliot

What is a Near Death Experience? Researchers Uncover the Most Frequent Elements of NDEs, and the Order They Occur

Near Death Experience

We all know what a near-death experience (NDE) is, right? Someone near death suddenly finds themselves 'out' of their body (and 'out-of-body experience'); they find themselves traveling down a 'tunnel'; they see a bright light; they meet with dead friends and family in another realm; they are turned back, and return to life, no longer fearing death.

We all know this because it has been laid out many times, perhaps most influentially by Raymond Moody in his 1975 classic Life After Life:

A man is dying and, as he reaches the point of greatest physical distress, he hears himself pronounced dead by his doctor. He begins to hear an uncomfortable noise, a loud ringing or buzzing, and at the same time feels himself moving very rapidly through a long dark tunnel. After this, he suddenly finds himself outside of his own physical body, but still in the immediate physical environment, and he sees his own body from a distance, as though he is a spectator. He watches the resuscitation attempt from this unusual vantage point and is in a state of emotional upheaval.

After a while, he collects himself and becomes more accustomed to his odd condition. He notes that he still has a “body”, but one of a very different nature and with very different powers from the physical body he has left behind. Soon other things begin to happen. Others come to meet and to help him. He glimpses the spirits of relatives and friends who have already died, and a loving warm spirit of a kind he has never encountered before – a being of light – appears before him. This being asks him a question, nonverbally, to make him evaluate his life and helps him along by showing him a panoramic, instantaneous playback of the major events in his life. At some point he finds himself approaching some sort of barrier or border, apparently representing the limit between earthly life and the next life. Yet he finds that he must go back to the earth, that the time of his death has not yet come. At this point he resists,for by now he is taken up with his experiences in the afterlife and does not want to return. He is overwhelmed by intense feelings of joy, love and peace. Despite his attitude, though, he somehow reunites with his physical body and lives.

Later, he tries to tell others, but he has trouble doing so. In the first place, he can find no human words adequate to describe these unearthly episodes. He also finds that others scoff, so he stops telling other people. Still, the experience affects his life profoundly, especially his views about death and its relationship to life.

Five years later, researcher Kenneth Ring made the first documented attempt to establish a chronological order of NDE features. Using a sample of 102 NDErs he constructed the 'Weighted Core Experience Index' (WCEI), and proposed a 5-stage temporality sequence of NDEs: (1) “An experience of peace, well-being, and an absence of pain,” (2) “a sense of detachment from the physical body, progressing to an OBE,” (3) “entering darkness, a tunnel experience with panoramic memory, and a predominantly positive effect,” (4) “an experience of light that is bright, warm, and attractive,” and (5) “entering the light; meeting persons or figures.”

However, apart from Ring's effort there has been very little scientific research done on the 'temporal structure' (ie., the sequence) of NDE elements. So a new paper, "Temporality of Features in Near-Death Experience Narratives", is a welcome addition to the NDE research corpus. As the paper's authors note, "investigating the temporality of NDE features may permit to highlight relationships and connections among them and, more generally, address the challenging question as to whether the patterns of NDEs are regular."

The research is based on 154 French written narratives of NDEs from participants recruited via the International Association for Near-Death Studies (IANDS France) and the Coma Science Group (GIGA-Consciousness, University of Liège and University Hospital of Liège, Belgium). Two researchers (one expert and one novice unfamiliar with the NDE phenomenon) then did textual analysis of the narratives separate to each other, picking out the various elements and their place in the temporal sequence of the reported NDE.

The analysis found that the mean number of NDE isolated features reported per narrative was 4 (± 2), out of a full range of 9 reported features.The most frequently encountered NDE features were: (1) Feeling of peacefulness (80%); (2) Seeing a bright light (69%); and (3) Encounters with spirits/people (64%). The two least frequently reported NDE features were Speeded thoughts (5%) and Precognitive visions (4%).

Our findings replicate previous research that has observed the feeling of peacefulness as the most frequently encountered feature during NDEs and precognitive visions as the less frequently encountered. Our results diverge, however, on the second most reported feature, which is 'Seeing a bright light' in the present study. OBE is here recorded in 53% of the testimonies (i.e., the fourth more frequent feature) while it is usually reported in the literature as the second most commonly encountered feature in NDEs (i.e., about 80%).

Overall, the researchers observe, NDE narratives "vary in 'richness' of encountered features", and while various significant features were identified (i.e., occurring > 50%) - such as 'Feeling of peace', 'Seeing a bright light', 'Encountering with spirits/people', and 'out-of-body experience' - it is worth noting that, strangely, "no NDE feature is universal in its occurrence."

As for their position in the narratives:

At time 1 (i.e., the first NDE feature appearing in narrative texts –whatever the total number of features encountered during the NDE), the most frequently reported feature was OBE (35%). At time 2 (i.e., the second NDE feature appearing in narrative texts –whatever the total number of features encountered during the NDE), Feeling of peacefulness (31%) was the most often encountered feature. At time 3 and 4, the most frequently reported features were, respectively, Seeing a bright light (25%) and Encountering with spirits/people (24%). At time 5 and 6, the most frequently observed feature was Coming to a border/point of no return (respectively, 22 and 31%). At time 7, Returning into the body (56%) was the most often reported feature. At time 8, the two most frequently reported features were Coming to a border/point of no return and Returning into the body (both 37%). Finally, results demonstrated that only three narratives contain a ninth feature and all three were Returning into the body (100%).

The researchers also analysed how often features occurred consecutively, with results showing that the most frequently reported sequence was 'Feeling of peace' and 'Encountering with spirits/people'. "Interestingly," they note, "it also appears that 'Seeing a bright light', 'OBE' and 'Feeling of peace' are all the more regularly followed by 'Encountering with spirits/people in narratives'... we further observe that NDErs experience more often an OBE before experiencing a Feeling of peace than the opposite pattern."

Overall, the most frequently encountered "temporality core features sequence reported by NDErs" in their narratives was 'OBE', followed by 'Experiencing a tunnel', followed by 'Seeing a bright light', finally followed by 'Feeling of peace'. However, the researchers note, this sequence - while the most common - was still only found "in a relatively small number of accounts". Instead, NDE accounts varied wildly in both the reported elements, and in their order:

Actually, no invariable temporal sequence of features (i.e., observed in all or at least most narratives) could be established in our sample of narratives, suggesting that every NDEr might report a unique pattern of experience. We then could consider NDEs narratives as a changeable collection of possible elements differing according to NDErs – and not as a regular pattern. Indeed, our findings suggest that NDEs may not feature all elements and elements do not seem to appear in a fixed order. This raises significant questions about what specific aspects of NDEs could be considered as universal –and what not.

So it appears that, while we think we know what a near-death experience is, in reality it is somewhat of a slippery concept. At its very loosest, we might say that it is when someone near death - sometimes physically, but also sometimes when they are simply under the impression they are about to die - experiences at least one of a number of identified 'NDE' elements. However, where do we draw the line on which are the important elements, and how many of them are really needed to make it a genuine NDE? For example, are feelings of peace near death enough to call it an NDE? It's an interesting question, though I'm not sure if it's one that has an easy answer.

News Briefs 31-08-2017

No alarms and no surprises, please.

Thanks to Jason, and viewers like you.

"SURELY THE BEST USE OF MY TIME WILL SOMEDAY BE MADE CLEAR"

- Spigot the Bear

Nexus 2036: Replicants Are Back in this Short Film 'Prequel' to the Upcoming Blade Runner 2049

Can't wait for Blade Runner 2049, the upcoming sequel to Ridley Scott's legendary 1982 sci-fi movie? Check out the short film 'prequel' embedded above, that helps fill-in what happened in the world of Blade Runner between the first movie, set in 2019, and the sequel, set in 2049:

The short film "Nexus: 2036" takes place in the year 2036 and revolves around Jared Leto’s character, Niander Wallace ...[who]... introduces a new line of “perfected” replicants called the Nexus 9, seeking to get the prohibition on replicants repealed.

...In 2023, government authorities legislated an indefinite “prohibition” on replicant production, as a year prior a massive EMP detonated on the West Coast and is pinned on Replicants. So in this Wallace piece, we’ll see the beginnings of the new Replicants that are created after the prohibition is lifted.

In Blade Runner 2049, thirty years after the events of the first film, a new blade runner, LAPD Officer K (Ryan Gosling), unearths a long-buried secret that has the potential to plunge what’s left of society into chaos. K’s discovery leads him on a quest to find Rick Deckard (Harrison Ford), a former LAPD blade runner who has been missing for 30 years.

This short 'prequel' is one of three introductory films that will be released ahead of Blade Runner 2049, which will hit theatres in early October. (You can watch the trailer here.)

News Briefs 30-08-2017

Happy birthday to my beautiful daughter Isis!

Quote of the Day:

The world is full of magic things, patiently waiting for our senses to grow sharper.

W.B. Yeats

What was 'The Bloop'?

In the summer of 1997, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recorded an extremely loud, minute-long sound some 1,500 miles off the coast of Chile. The unknown sound was picked up by underwater hydrophones some 1,800 miles apart, making it the loudest unidentified underwater sound ever recorded, and it didn't match with any man-made or known deep-sea animal source.

Nicknamed ‘the Bloop’, this mysterious sound was never heard again, becoming a curiosity for scientists and a springboard for wide-ranging theories for the general public for many years to come. However, following surveys conducted between 2005 and 2010, NOAA scientists determined that the sound was consistent with the rupture of a massive Antarctic ice sheet. In this short documentary from the US director Cara Cusumano, the retired NOAA oceanographer Christopher Fox recalls his experience with ‘the Bloop’, including how it went from a scientific concern to a rare science story that captured the public imagination.

There's some nice comments near the end about how, while speculation about 'the Bloop' went "beyond scientific rigour", Fox wasn't bothered by it, and ultimately he is "glad there's still some mysteries out there".

News Briefs 29-08-2017

If you're doing it tough, please hang in there. It gets funkier...

Quote of the Day:

I'm a guy that lives with a lot of questions. I say "What's out there?", and I try to resolve that. And I never can...and so I live with a lot of questions.

And I find that entertaining... If my life were to end tomorrow, it would be fulfilled in that manner. I would say, "The questions have been terrific."

Jack Kirby

MAPS Granted Historic Approval to Conduct Phase-3 Trials for MDMA-Assisted Therapy

It seems the day when MDMA (ecstasy) gets widely regarded as a valuable therapeutic tool for the treatment of serious psychological problems, instead of an illegal party drug, is now closer at hand. Last week MAPS --the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies-- issued a press release announcing they had reached an agreement with the FDA to grant MDMA the designation of 'Breakthrough Therapy', and are now ready to design two Phase 3 trials of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for patients with severe PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder).

These new trials will be conducted next year, as a follow-up to a previously completed Phase 2 trial in which 107 subjects participated. After three sessions of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, 61% no longer qualified for PTSD, and at a 12-month follow up, 68% of the subjects were found completely cured of PTSD. Now let those figures sink in for a moment: Patients who had been suffering from extremely-deteriorating stress symptoms FOR DECADES, who had resorted to all sorts of prescription pills to counter the symptoms, and countless hours of traditional psychotherapy to no avail, were cured forever of their fears and phobias after taking MDMA three times.

"Reaching agreement with FDA on the design of our Phase 3 program and having the ability to work closely with the agency has been a major priority for our team," said Amy Emerson, Executive Director of the MAPS Public Benefit Corporation (MPBC). "Our Phase 2 data was extremely promising with a large effect size, and we are ready to move forward quickly. With breakthrough designation, we can now move even more efficiently through the development process in collaboration with the FDA to complete Phase 3."

The FDA's unusual openness to acknowledge the huge therapeutic potential of what is still considered a Schedule I drug in most countries, is sadly the result of the continuous belic conflicts in the Middle East for the last 16 years. With hundreds of veterans returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan suffering from the brunt of traumatic experiences and unable to successfully reintegrate to civilian life, there's a big political push to try unorthodox methods to help all these young men and women who served their country. All this is mentioned on an article published on the Washington Post on the same day MAPS issued its press release.

This is not only great news for people currently suffering from PTSD or other issues which have proven too resilient for traditional therapies, but also a major victory for MAPS and its founder, Rick Doblin; a man who has been fighting for the legitimacy of psychedelic treatments for 45 years. Over at Narratively there's a great article delving into Rick's career, which talks about how his conviction that psychedelics have the potential to cure some of the world's deepest ills, has pushed him to go through all the legal red tape and stigma these substances have been carrying since the 1960's, conducting scientific studies and publishing papers in reputable journals, so that one day the Western world will finally makes its peace with entheogens, and openly regard them the same way our ancestors did for thousands of years: As a gift of the gods to mankind.


Rick Doblin at Burning Man, accompanied by author Daniel Pinchbeck to the left, and psychedelic artist Alex Grey to the right.

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