Where we attempt to fill you in on everything they forgot to teach you at school

The Secret Tradition of the Soul

If, like me, you enjoyed Patrick Harpur's Daimonic Reality and The Philosophers' Secret Fire, then you'll probably be very happy to learn that he has a new book due out next week (Oct 18) - and it looks fascinating. Titled The Secret Tradition of the Soul, the book...

...argues that answers to life’s most difficult questions — the meaning of life, the nature of self, and the existence of an afterlife — can be met by a visionary tradition that runs through Western culture, The Secret Tradition of the Soul Book Coverfrom Greek philosophy and Renaissance alchemy to Romantic poetry and modern depth psychology. This hidden tradition, according to Harpur, places our soul at the center of the universe and emphasizes imagination, the collective unconscious, and an “otherworld” or afterlife; above all, it teaches us how to know ourselves and how to recover a sense of meaning largely lost today. Harpur shows how this tradition drives the literature of otherworld journeys, from the flights of shamans and the dreams of psychoanalysis to the mystic imagination of Romantic poets and the visions of those having near-death experiences. The Secret Tradition of the Soul is the first book to gather together all the threads of the soul tradition and weave them into a bigger, clearer picture, presenting a worldview at once ancient and revolutionary.

Get it while it's hot!

Mysterious Paper Sculptures Discovered in Libraries

Earlier this year, staff at the Scottish Poetry Library came across something odd on one of their tables: a tree, carved from book and paper, and with a short, anonymous note addressed to the Library's twitter handle @byleaveswelive:

It started with your name @byleaveswelive and became a tree ... We know that a library is so much more than a building full of books ... a book is so much more than pages full of words ... This is for you in support of libraries, books, words, ideas ... a gesture (poetic maybe?)

Since that time, more 'book sculptures' have turned up in the same way at the National Library of Scotland, the Filmhouse, the Scottish Storytelling Centre, the Central Lending Library, as well as two more during the recent Edinburgh International Book Festival. Here's the sculpture of a dragon hatching from an egg that was left at the Scottish Storytelling Centre:

Paper sculpture of a dragon

For @scotstorycenter - A gift in support of libraries, books, works, ideas..... Once upon a time there was a book and in the book was a nest and in the nest was an egg and in the egg was a dragon and in the dragon was a story.....

Given the messages, it's possible these sculptures are a reaction against the controversial closure of libraries across the United Kingdom. Or perhaps they're just wonderful gifts, just as books and libraries are to us all.

To read the whole story, and check out photos of all the sculptures so far, click through to this post.

Graham Hancock on Ancient Seafarers

I enjoyed watching this presentation from 'alternative history' author Graham Hancock on the topics covered in his books, including the bestselling Fingerprints of the Gods:

It was great to revisit some of these topics that I read in FotG way back in the 90s. Coincidentally I watched this not long after reading a Discovery Magazine story titled "Egypt's Lost Fleet", which discussed a recent archaeological excavation which appears to show that the 
ancient Egyptians "
mastered oceangoing technology and 
launched a series of 
ambitious expeditions 
to far-off lands" - something that Graham concluded in FotG sixteen years ago. Materials discovered in ocean-side caves have led archaeologists to believe that, almost 4000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians built ocean-going boats up to 30 metres long in order to sail to the land of Punt. From the magazine article:

Boston University archaeologist Kathryn Bard and an international team have uncovered six other caves at Mersa Gawasis. The evidence they have found, including the remains of the oldest seagoing ships every discovered, offers hard proof of the Egyptians' nautical roots and important clues to the location of Punt. "These new finds remove all doubt that you reach Punt by sea," Baines says. "The Egyptians must have had considerable seagoing experience."

Readers of Fingerprints of the Gods will know that Graham mentions the 42-meter-long boats buried near the Great Pyramid (some 600 years, at least, before the boats mentioned in the above article). Graham cites Thor Heyerdahl as saying that the boat's design incorporated "all the seagoing ship's characteristic properties, with prow and stern soaring upward, higher than in a Viking ship, to ride out the breakers and high seas, not to contend with the little ripples of the Nile", and that it must have been "created by shipbuilders from a people with a long, solid tradition of sailing on the open sea."

Catastrophe for Catastrophism?

Is the Earth periodically thrown into chaos by short-lived geological and astronomical events? The idea is considered to be somewhat heretical in scientific circles, at least when it comes to the claim that this periodicity is perhaps consistent, and due to interactions between astronomical objects and the Earth (see, for example, Immanuel Velikovsky). One recent suggestion for a mechanism behind catastrophism is a 'dark companion' star to our own, named Nemesis. However, a new statistical analysis may herald the end for one aspect of such an idea:

Doomsayers have been wringing their hands for years over the possibility that an unseen companion to our sun periodically diverts a hail of comets toward Earth, sparking mass extinctions like cosmic clockwork. MeteoriteNow an astronomer has shown that the evidence for such a cycle in the flux of comets or asteroids doesn't actually exist.

...Last year, researchers reported that if the Nemesis companion existed, it wouldn't orbit in a nice, precise 27 million-year cycle. That study, published in the Royal Astronomical Society Letters, was portrayed as the "final nail in the coffin" for the Nemesis hypothesis. But the researchers still couldn't explain why extinctions seemed to peak every 27 million years.

"For me, it's a complete head-scratcher," University of Kansas physicist Adrian Melott said at the time.

Now a researcher at Germany's Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Coryn Bailer-Jones, essentially says that Melott can stop with the scratching. His analysis, published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, suggests that the seeming periodicity may look like a pattern but actually is a statistical artifact.

...Bailer-Jones looked at variations in the rate of cratering on our planet over time, using an alternative method for evaluating probabilities known as Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian analysis provides a reality check for statisticians who think they see patterns in their data, and in this case, the analysis ruled out simple periodic variations. Instead, the figures pointed to a steady trend of increased cratering over the past 250 million years.

..."From the crater record, there is no evidence of Nemesis," Bailer-Jones said. "What remains is the intriguing question of whether or not impacts have become ever more frequent over the past 250 million years."

Read the complete article at Cosmic Log.

Hawass Gone for Good?

The controversial Egyptian Minister for Antiquities, Dr Zahi Hawass, has reportedly been dismissed from his position in a cabinet reshuffle by Prime Minister Essam Sharaf. From the NYT:

Egypt's antiquities minister, whose trademark Indiana Jones hat made him one the country's best known figures around the world, was fired Sunday after months of pressure from critics who attacked his credibility and accused him of having been too close to the regime of ousted President Hosni Mubarak.

Zahi Hawass, long chided as publicity loving and short on scientific knowledge, lost his job along with about a dozen other ministers in a Cabinet reshuffle meant to ease pressure from protesters seeking to purge remnants of Mubarak's regime.

"He was the Mubarak of antiquities," said Nora Shalaby, an activist and archaeologist. "He acted as if he owned Egypt's antiquities, and not that they belonged to the people of Egypt."

Despite the criticism, he was credited with helping boost interest in archaeology in Egypt and tourism, a pillar of the country's economy.

When Dr Hawass resigned earlier this year, post-Egyptian uprising, I commented that I thought he would likely be back soon enough - and was later proven correct. This time, however, I find it difficult to see him returning to his former power...this could be the end of the road for Zahi in terms of ruling Egyptian archaeology (he could still have some plum jobs with the U.S. media as a pundit, I'm sure).

As Dr Hawass left his office by taxi he was mobbed by an angry crowd, who smashed out the window of the cab and hit the driver:

Dr Hawass' replacement was initially reported as being Abdel-Fattah el-Banna - however, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) rejected the appointment and called for the dissolution of the recently established Ministry for Antiquities.

Just last week I reported on some odd incongruities in the Big Z's story of how looted museum treasures were returned to the authorities, so there may yet be further pressures on the former 'pharaoh of the pyramids' beyond public anger at his support for Mubarek.

To keep up to date on breaking news related to Egyptian archaeology, follow Vincent from Talking Pyramids on Twitter (@Bennu) and/or on Google+.

Related posts:

The Case of the Stolen Tut Treasures

We all know that pyramid supremo Zahi Hawass tends to talk through his hat at times, and at other times doesn't always tell the full story. But the following incongruity may have broader implications. Vincent from the excellent Talking Pyramids website has noted a change in the story about how some of the stolen King Tut artifacts (during the Egyptian uprising earlier this year) were recovered by a government employee.

Here's Al Ahram's original version of the recovery of 4 missing Tut artifacts:

Salah Abdel Salam, a public relation personal at the MSAA, came upon these objects during his daily trip to work on the Metro. He related that he accidently found an unidentified black bag placed on a chair in the Shubra Metro station. Doubtful that the bag was concealing an explosive, Salah opened it and found the Tutankhamun statue gazing up at him. He took the bag and handed it over to the MSAA.

Hawass did not immediately echo this story on his website, but four days later posted about it on his own blog - except MSAA employee Salah Abdel Salam has suddenly turned into simply "a person" who turned up directly on Zahi's steps out of the blue with the bag, rather than handing it over to the MSAA.

But now, in this recent Scientific American interview, this is apparently how it happened:

Hawass: And we've brought back most of King Tut's objects that had been stolen.

Interviewer: And where were they? Where did you find them?

Hawass: Those were taken by the looters who entered the Cairo Museum on the night of January 28. Tut's Death MaskWe tracked them, and had people to ask and people to give us information. We got the objects of King Tut because there was someone working for the antiquities department who came to me and said that there were looters who wanted to return these objects back to me. And the next day he brought a bag with four objects.

Interviewer: And these looters approached the department official anonymously.

Hawass: It's a long story. He was sitting in a café, and heard them talking, and they said they need to return these objects to Zahi Hawass because they trust him.

Hawass appears to be talking about the same event - a government official coming into possession of four Tut items, in a bag, through sheer luck. If so, why the disparities (most especially, "abandoned bag at a train station" vs "overheard conversation in a cafe")? Added to reports like this one and this one, and you start to wonder about the real story here.

Whatever the truth of the matter, you have to giggle at the line "they need to return these objects to Zahi Hawass because they trust him". Nice touch Z!

(n.b. The stolen items did not include the Tutankhamen's death mask - I just had the image at hand to illustrate the story).

Related posts:

Pyramid Graffiti in the Gantenbrink Shaft?

New Scientist is reporting that a robot exploring the enigmatic 'air shafts' emanating from the Queen's Chamber of the Great Pyramid of Giza has found 'graffiti' on the back side of the 'Gantenbrink Door' (so-named after their discovery by German robotics engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink way back in 1993). Images taken by the new robot also revealed that the metal 'handles' originally sighted by Gantenbrink don't do anything special, but instead are simply looped off on the reverse of the door:

[A] robot designed by engineer Rob Richardson from the University of Leeds, UK, and colleagues, and named Djedi after the magician that Khufu consulted when he planned his tomb, has crawled up the tunnel carrying a bendy "micro snake" camera that can see around corners.

Images sent back by the camera have revealed hieroglyphs written in red paint and lines in the stone that could be marks left by stone masons when the chamber was being carved (Annales Du Service des Antiquités De L'Égypte, vol 84, ISBN: 978-977-704-184-3). "If these hieroglyphs could be deciphered they could help Egyptologists work out why these mysterious shafts were built," says Richardson.

"Red-painted numbers and graffiti are very common around Giza," says Peter Der Manuelian, an Egyptologist at Harvard University and director of the Giza Archives at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "They are often masons' or work-gangs' marks, denoting numbers, dates or even the names of the gangs."

As the camera can see around corners, the back of the stone door has been observed for the first time, scotching the more fanciful theories about the metal pins, says camera-designer Shaun Whitehead of the exploration company Scoutek, based in Melton Mowbray, UK. "Our new pictures from behind the pins show that they end in small, beautifully made loops, indicating that they were more likely ornamental rather than electrical connections."

The Daily Mail has posted an image taken by the robot, which I've reproduced below:

Graffiti on the reverse of the Gantenbrink Door

For his part, Zahi Hawass has continued to mention the possibility of a hidden chamber in the pyramid, based on the myth of Djedi (whose name the exploration team have rather provocatively appropriated - see my earlier story "Return of the Djedi" for a little history):

The King's Chamber may have been a dummy room, since the most important thing in the mind of the ancient Egyptians was to hide the burial chamber. We have a story that the magician Djedi met Khufu, who was searching for the god Thoth so he could find the secret of hiding his pyramid. Based on that maybe there is something hidden in the pyramid.

It will be interesting to see if any further discoveries are made. But while we keep a close eye on the story, never forget that much more credit needs to go to Rudolf Gantenbrink than Zahi Hawass for this exploration. See The Upuaut Project for a detailed history of his exploration, and schematics of the pyramids based on his work. Also, for anyone looking to understand this two-decade-long story a little better, see some of the links below.

Thanks Sjaoar for the heads-up.

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The Music of the Cubes

Slate has just published an extensive feature on everyone's favourite home of the head/body of Jesus/Mary Magdalene, Rosslyn Chapel. Once an obscure site referenced only by fans of 'hidden history', the small Scottish religious landmark shot to international fame in 2003 when it was included as an important location in Dan Brown's mega-seller, The Da Vinci Code. After the amount of ink spilled on the topic in the wake of the Da Vinci media frenzy, you you might think there would be nothing left to write on the topic. However, this new article targets one particular, 'recent' mystery related to Rosslyn: the 213 cubes with strange designs on them that can be found throughout the chapel:

The Rosslyn Chapel's 213 stone cubes were carved when Leonardo da Vinci and Christopher Columbus were schoolboys. Construction on the chapel began in 1456, about 50 years before the printing press arrived in Scotland. Rosslyn Cubes on PillarThe Stewart kings ruled the country at the time, and most historians credit James IV—who took the throne in 1488—for ushering in an era of scholarship and scientific inquiry. By that time, the chapel's founder, William St. Clair, had died, and construction on what was meant to be a much larger structure had come to a halt.

Given the era in which Rosslyn Chapel was built, then, it would be surprising to learn that someone encoded scientifically inspired symbols on the walls. But that's exactly what Tommy and Stuart Mitchell came to believe. The chapel's stone cubes, they were convinced, looked like Chladni patterns, the images that form when musical frequencies vibrate along a two-dimensional surface. Now, they just had to confront the inconvenient fact that Ernst Chladni was not born until 1756.

...as far as Tommy and Stuart were concerned, they could test their hypothesis without tracking down Chladni's Scottish predecessor. If they could match each of the 12 distinct symbols repeated across the cubes to a Chladni pattern—assigning each symbol to a musical pitch—they would have a 213-note sequence. The proof would be in the melody: If it sounded like something other than an incomprehensible jumble of sound, the Mitchells would have compelling evidence that the chapel's designer had transcribed a song in Rosslyn's stone walls.

The feature is in five parts, each with multiple pages. You'll also find plenty of debate (and skepticism) in the comments below the article.

Göbekli Geographic

Go back some five thousand years to the pyramids of Giza and Stonehenge, then go back another five thousand years. Add on two thousand more years and you're getting close to the construction date of the enigmatic, ultra-ancient megalithic 'temple' at Göbekli Tepe in Turkey. Naturally, I find any stories on this particular site of extreme interest, so I was very happy to see that it's featured as the cover story of the latest issue of National Geographic (June 2011).

Discovering that hunter-gatherers had constructed Göbekli Tepe was like finding that someone had built a 747 in a basement with an X-Acto knife. "I, my colleagues, we all thought, What? How?" Schmidt said. Paradoxically, Göbekli Tepe appeared to be both a harbinger of the civilized world that was to come and the last, greatest emblem of a nomadic past that was already disappearing. The accomplishment was astonishing, but it was hard to understand how it had been done or what it meant. "In 10 or 15 years," Schmidt predicts, "Göbekli Tepe will be more famous than Stonehenge. And for good reason."

The article is accompanied by some wonderful photos by Vincent J. Musi, which include a 10,000-year-old sculpture of a human and the strange 'portals' that can be found at the site. Click on the image below to view the gallery.

Göbekli TepePhoto by Vincent J. Musi

For more information, you might also like to check out Filip Coppens' Darklore article about Göbekli Tepe, which is available as a free download from the Sample Articles page of the Darklore website (along with a bunch of others). Also see the links below, which review updates from previous years (and the first has video as well).

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The Hawass Contradictions

Try and keep up...

First Zahi was good buddies with ousted Egyptian ruler Hosni Mubarek, even calling for Susan Mubarek to get a Nobel Prize, and now suddenly this week he says he hardly knew them. Apparently now he's "not from the old regime", and the revolution was definitely "a good thing", although apparently that opinion depends on which language he's speaking at the time.

Not to mention, back when the revolution was underway, the Big H reassured everyone that Egypt's treasures were safe. Except apparently Zahi now says around 1000 relics disappeared during the uprising. But at least some of the stolen treasures were returned when one of the burglars apparently got a conscience and left a bag of artefacts at a Metro station, where an anonymous person found it and "accidentally" looked in the bag, and then took it directly to Zahi. Which just goes to show that those allegations that it was an inside job were obviously false, and so all you noise-makers should just shut-up now...

Then Dr Hawass brought out his own menswear clothing range, but was attacked for using Egyptian heritage for props in promoting his personal label. He responded that no genuine artefacts were directly used in the photo shoot, and that all the profits from the clothing line were being given to a children's cancer hospital anyhow. But then the NYT dug deeper and found that Hawass had contacted the hospital about the arrangement only recently, and that only half the profits would go to charity.

And to top it all off he was sentenced to a year in prison for ignoring a 2010 court order regarding the Cairo Museum gift shop. But then the court overturned that decision the next day.

What more could go wrong, apart from his beloved museum being now seen by many Egyptians as a torture chamber. Things just don't seem quite so easy for Zahi in post-revolution Egypt.