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Updated: 3 hours 21 min ago

'Integrated Play Groups' help children with autism

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:29pm
'Integrated Play Groups,' which focus on collaborative rather than adult-directed play, are successful in teaching children with autism the skills needed to engage in symbolic play and to interact with their typically developing peers, according to new research. The new study offers hope to parents and providers of children with autism who are helping those children learn how to socialize.
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Deepwater Horizon spill: Much of the oil at bottom of the sea

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:29pm
Due to its unprecedented scope, the damage assessment caused by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico has been a challenge. One unsolved puzzle is the location of 2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to be trapped in the deep ocean.
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Maintenance therapy for injection-drug users associated with lower incidence of hepatitis C

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:28pm
In a group of young users of injection drugs, recent maintenance opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid use disorders, such as heroin addiction, was associated with a lower incidence of hepatitis C virus infection and may be an effective strategy to reduce injection-drug use and the resulting spread of HCV, according to a study.
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Traumatic brain injury associated with increased dementia risk in older adults

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:28pm
Traumatic brain injury appears to be associated with an increased risk of dementia in adults 55 years and older, according to a study. "Whether a person with TBI recovers cognitively or develops dementia is likely dependent on multiple additional risk and protective factors, ranging from genetics and medical comorbidities to environmental exposures and specific characteristics of the TBI itself," the authors note.
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Prescription opioids involved in most overdoses seen in emergency departments

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:28pm
In an American national study of hospital emergency department visits for opioid overdoses, 67.8 percent of the overdoses involved prescription opioids (including methadone), followed by heroin, other unspecified opioids and multiple opioids, according to research.
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Initial choice of oral medication to lower glucose in diabetes patients examined

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:28pm
Patients diagnosed with diabetes and initially prescribed metformin to lower their glucose levels were less likely to require treatment intensification with a second oral medicine or insulin than patients treated first with sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, according to a study.
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Ultrafast electron diffraction experiments open a new window on the microscopic world

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:22pm
Researchers have succeeded in simultaneously observing the reorganizations of atomic positions and electron distribution during the transformation of the “smart material” vanadium dioxide from a semiconductor into a metal – in a timeframe a trillion times faster than the blink of an eye.
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Whites of their eyes: Infants respond to social cues from sclera, study finds

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:22pm
Infants at 7 months old are able to unconsciously pick up on eye cues, based on the size of the whites of a person’s eyes – a vital foundation for the development of social interactive skills, a new psychology study shows.
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Reducing population is no environmental 'quick fix'

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:19pm
New multi-scenario modelling of world human population has concluded that even stringent fertility restrictions or a catastrophic mass mortality would not bring about large enough change this century to solve issues of global sustainability.
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How culture influences violence among the Amazon's ‘fierce people'

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:19pm
When Yanomamö men in the Amazon raided villages and killed decades ago, they formed alliances with men in other villages rather than just with close kin like chimpanzees do. And the spoils of war came from marrying their allies’ sisters and daughters, rather than taking their victims’ land and women.
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First atlas of body clock gene expression informs timing of drug delivery

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 10:19pm
A new effort mapping 24-hr patterns of expression for thousands of genes in 12 different mouse organs – five years in the making – provides important clues about how the role of timing may influence the way drugs work in the body. This study, detailing this veritable “atlas” of gene oscillations, has never before been described in mammals. Nearly half of all genes in the mouse genome oscillate on a 24-hour schedule somewhere in the mouse body.
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Lack of transcription factor FoxO1 triggers pulmonary hypertension

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:50pm
Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by uncontrolled division of cells in the blood vessel walls. As a result, the vessel walls become increasingly thick. Scientists have discovered that transcription factor FoxO1 regulates the division of cells and plays a key role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. The researchers were able to cure pulmonary hypertension in rats by activating FoxO1.
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Prostate cancer, kidney disease detected in urine samples on the spot

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:50pm
A new device screens for kidney disease and prostate cancer on the spot. The tiny tube is lined with DNA sequences that latch onto disease markers in urine. While healthy samples flow freely, a diseased sample gets clogged and stops short of the mark.
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Physicists closer to understanding balance of matter, antimatter in universe

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:50pm
Physicists have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the Universe contains more matter than antimatter.
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Synapses always on the starting blocks: Neurotransmitter rapid-fire release better understood

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:50pm
Vesicles filled with neurotransmitters touch the cell membrane, thereby enabling their rapid-fire release, scientists report. They have succeeded in demonstrating that fusionable vesicles have a very special characteristic: they already have close contact with the cell membrane long before the actual fusion occurs. In addition, the research team also decoded the molecular machinery that facilitates the operation of this docking mechanism.
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Using microscopic bugs to save the bees

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:49pm
For decades, honeybees have been battling a deadly disease that kills off their babies -- larvae -- and leads to hive collapse. It's called American Foulbrood and its effects are so devastating and infectious, it often requires infected hives to be burned to the ground. Now researchers have produced a natural way to eliminate the scourge, and it's working: Using tiny killer bugs known as phages to protect baby bees from infection.
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Hot on the trail of the Asian tiger mosquito

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:48pm
The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) was spotted in Houston in 1985 but can now be found in all of the southern states and as far north as Maine. To reconstruct its spread, scientists turned to the new discipline of landscape genetics. Correlating genetic patterns with landscape patterns, they concluded that the mosquito had hitched a ride along highways. One of only a handful of landscape genetics studies to track an invasive species, this is the first to detect hitchhiking.
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Why targeted drug doesn't benefit patients with early-stage lung cancer

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:48pm
The drug erlotinib is highly effective in treating advanced-stage lung cancer patients whose tumors have a particular gene mutation, but when the same drug is used for patients with early-stage tumors with the same gene change, they fare worse than if they took nothing. This study might explain why.
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Slowing the biological clock: neutralizing immune system gene could improve success of fertility treatments

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:48pm
Difficulty in conceiving a child is a major challenge for one in seven couples in America, especially for those over the age of 35. Now a new discovery could boost the chances of conception in women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatments. Their new research reveals a linkage between the genes of the innate immune system -- immunity with which human beings are born, rather than immunity they acquire during their lives -- and ovarian longevity.
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Penguin chick weights connected to local weather conditions

Mon, 27/10/2014 - 6:46pm
Oceanographers have reported a connection between local weather conditions and the weight of Adélie penguin chicks. Adélie penguins are an indigenous species of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of the most rapidly warming areas on Earth. Since 1950, the average annual temperature in the Antarctic Peninsula has increased 2 degrees Celsius on average, and 6 degrees Celsius during winter.
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