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Human activity influences ocean beach bacterial communities, and bacterial diversity may indicate greater ecological health and resiliency to sewage contamination. Beaches all contain bacteria, but some bacteria are usually from sewage and may contaminate the water, posing a public health risk.
Women's reproductive health may never be the same, thanks to a biomedical engineer and his first-of-its-kind intravaginal ring that reliably delivers an antiretroviral drug and a contraceptive for months. The ring is designed to protect against HIV and herpes as well as unwanted pregnancy. It will be the first device with the potential to offer this protection to be tested in women. The ring, being manufactured now, soon will undergo its first test in women.
Understanding the mechanisms which control reproduction in lynx is essential for their continued viability and effective conservation. Scientists discovered that the Corpus luteum of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) has the longest lifespan among mammals known to date. This hormone producing tissue is responsible for restricting this lynx species (and presumably the other lynx species as well) to only having one estrous cycle per year (mono-estrous) and therefore only one opportunity per year to become pregnant.
Alzheimer’s disease may contribute to close to as many deaths in the United States as heart disease or cancer, a new study suggests. Currently, Alzheimer's disease falls sixth on the list of leading causes of death in the United States according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), whereas heart disease and cancer are numbers one and two, respectively. These numbers are based on what is reported on death certificates.
Personalized gene therapy locks out HIV, paving the way to control virus without antiretroviral drugs
The immune cells of 12 HIV positive patients have been successfully genetically engineered by researchers to resist infection, and decrease the viral loads of some patients taken off antiretroviral drug therapy (ADT) entirely -— including one patient whose levels became undetectable. The study is the first published report of any gene editing approach in humans. "This study shows that we can safely and effectively engineer an HIV patient's own T cells to mimic a naturally occurring resistance to the virus, infuse those engineered cells, have them persist in the body, and potentially keep viral loads at bay without the use of drugs," said the senior author.
For the first time, astronomers have used the same imaging technology found in a digital camera to take a picture of a planet far from our solar system with an Earth-based telescope. The accomplishment is a small step toward the technology astronomers will need in order to characterize planets suitable for harboring life.
A recent study of five decades of satellite data, model simulations and in situ observations suggests the impact of seasonal diurnal or daily warming varies between global regions affecting many ecosystem functions and services, such as food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation. The effects of non-uniform climate warming on terrestrial ecosystems is a key challenge in carbon cycle research and for those making future predictions.
The specific proportions of immune cells in a blood sample form a profile that can indicate disease or exposure to a toxicant. A new epigenetic technique provides a reliable way to detect such profiles, even in archived blood where whole cells may no longer be intact. All the current means of counting immune cells in a blood sample require whole cells, but the new system relies on something far less ephemeral: DNA. Its use of hardy strands of genetic material allows it to handle even archived samples where cells have lost their physical integrity.
The Galápagos Islands are home to some of the most active volcanoes in the world, with more than 50 eruptions in the last 200 years. Yet until recently, scientists knew far more about the history of finches, tortoises, and iguanas than of the volcanoes on which these unusual fauna had evolved. Now research is providing a better picture of the subterranean plumbing system that feeds the Galápagos volcanoes.
It may seem normal: As we age, we misplace car keys, or can't remember a name we just learned or a meal we just ordered. But researchers say memory trouble doesn't have to be inevitable, and they've found a drug therapy that could potentially reverse this type of memory decline. The drug can't yet be used in humans, but the researchers are pursuing compounds that could someday help the population of aging adults who don't have Alzheimer's or other dementias but still have trouble remembering day-to-day items.
Three promising biomarkers being studied to detect Alzheimer’s disease in its early stages appear to undergo a surprising shift as patients develop symptoms of dementia, researchers report. Scientists found in a recent study that the levels of markers of neuronal injury increase in the spinal fluid for a decade or more before the onset of dementia. But in a new twist, the research shows for the first time that they later reverse course, decreasing as symptoms of memory loss and mental decline appear.
Astronomers have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's (ESA's) XMM-Newton to show a supermassive black hole six billion light years from Earth is spinning extremely rapidly. This first direct measurement of the spin of such a distant black hole is an important advance for understanding how black holes grow over time.
As happens about 20 times a year with current detection capabilities, a known asteroid will safely pass Earth on March 5 closer than the distance from Earth to the moon.
The heat from warm river waters draining into the Arctic Ocean is contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice each summer, a new NASA study finds.
Researchers have succeeded in producing a prototype of a vibration-damping material that could change the world of mechanics forever. The material of the future is not only able to damp vibrations completely. It can also specifically conduct certain frequencies further.
The Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (CSESA) developed its approach from research in several fields. Because of the complex educational needs of many students with autism, it was important to develop a comprehensive program for high schools. CSESA focuses on understanding emotions, developing friendships, and social problem-solving -- and it draws from new research in implementation science so that schools can put the program into place quickly and effectively.
Radio waves are used for many measurements and applications, for example, in communication with mobile phones, MRI scans, scientific experiments and cosmic observations. But 'noise' in the detector of the measuring instrument limits how sensitive and precise the measurements can be. Now researchers have developed a new method where they can avoid noise by means of laser light and can therefore achieve extreme precision of measurements.
A single gene regulates the complex wing patterns, colors and structures required for mimicry in swallowtail butterflies, report scientists. Surprisingly, the gene described, doublesex, is already well-known for its critical role in sexual differentiation in insects.
D-Wave quantum processor passes tests indicating that it uses special laws of quantum mechanics to operate. A key task for researchers has been to determine whether D-Wave processors operate as hoped -- using the special laws of quantum mechanics to offer potentially higher-speed processing, instead of operating in a classical, traditional way.
Making your own stuff with a 3-D printer is vastly cheaper than what you'd pay for manufactured goods, even factoring in the cost of buying the plastic filament. Yet, you can drive the cost down even more by making your own filament from old milk jugs. And, while you are patting yourself on the back for saving 99 cents on the dollar, there's a bonus: you can feel warm and fuzzy about preserving the environment. Making your own plastic 3-D printer filament from milk jugs uses less energy -- often a lot less -- than recycling milk jugs conventionally.