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Powerful head and neck retractions of vertebrate carcasses, including dinosaur fossils, have puzzled researchers as to whether they occurred just before an animal's death in agony, or after. Now experiments performed in the wild on large ostrich chick cadavers show that they occur post-mortem.
Current estimates of the number of cheetahs in the wild are 'guesswork', say the authors of a new study that finds that the population in the cheetah stronghold of Maasai Mara, Kenya, is lower than previously thought.
Simple heat-based exercise can be just as effective as low-oxygen training to improve physical performance and altitude tolerance, new study reveals. The new work suggests that heat-based exercise can offer a more efficient means of improving altitude tolerance and physical performance than normobaric altitude training can provide.
Over the last 30 or so years, veterinary professionals' understanding of clinical feline hyperthyroidism has evolved tremendously.
Dog owners tell their vets that Labrador retrievers are always interested in food, and new work shows there might be a biological truth to the claim. A study links a gene alteration specifically found in Labs to greater food-motivated behavior, describing the first gene associated with canine obesity. The variation also occurs more frequently in Labradors chosen as assistance dogs, and might explain why these canines seem more trainable with food rewards.
As we age, tiny blood vessels in the brain stiffen and sometimes rupture, causing 'microbleeds.' This damage has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline, but whether the brain can naturally repair itself beyond growing new blood-vessel tissue has been unknown. A zebrafish study describes for the first time how white blood cells called macrophages can grab the broken ends of a blood vessel and stick them back together.
Chronic hepatitis B infection could one day be cleared from a person's system with a series of shots. 'Hepatic macrophages' -- liver immune cells that eliminate foreign substances and toxins -- could be the target of future treatment, say researchers.
The textbook 'monogamy hypothesis' argues that monogamy favors the evolution of cooperation by increasing sibling relatedness, since helpers are as related to the full siblings that they care for as they are to their own offspring. Two experts in social and reproductive behavior say that the proof isn't all there.
Researchers have found that extended rest intervals between sets of weight-lifting could help with muscle growth.
The number of new HIV infections occurring annually in the United States decreased by an estimated 11 percent from 2010 to 2015, while the HIV transmission rate decreased by an estimated 17 percent during the same time period, according to new research.
A combination of drought and fire has put the Arizona black rattlesnake on an “extinction trajectory,” according to researchers. The Arizona black rattlesnake is found at higher elevations in Arizona and western New Mexico. The researchers collected DNA from 118 specimens of the rattlesnake and analyzed its genetic structure. They found both a shrinking population and a reduction in its movement across an already limited range.
Sjogren's syndrome affects an estimated four million people in the U.S., but diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms are similar to other conditions. A new study describes a protein with the potential to be an earlier and more precise indicator of the disease.
A review update has been released to evaluate the effects of corticosteroids being used alongside anti-tuberculosis medication to treat people suffering from tuberculous meningitis Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB), which affects the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. The infection causes headache, coma, and death is common. Survivors are also at risk of being disabled from brain damage.
Women in the Middle Ages often wore better quality clothes than men, concludes an expert who studied textile remnants from the period from 400 to 1000 A.D.
Body image identity varies among women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer with many rejecting mainstream body shape ideals, new research shows.
Debilitating symptoms from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can worsen in patients who also experience depression, research suggests. Patients who had pre-existing depression or developed depression after COPD diagnosis were more likely to experience heightened COPD symptoms, such as increased breathlessness, reduced exercise tolerance and hopelessness.
A new study finds a significant decline in funding for an important part of the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR. The study finds a 33 percent drop in funding for a core activity called governance and systems, which supports infrastructure for delivering HIV- and AIDS-related services, particularly in low-income countries.
Scientists have developed a new blackspot identification method that offers an unbiased prediction of crash counts and allows a more accurate way to identify high-risk crash sites. The blackspot program aimed to reduce crashes by targeting high-risk locations and funding remedial works such as re-aligning the geometry or widening the shoulder of the road.
Cycads are the most threatened plant group, prompting a growing need for meta-analysis of cycad literature.
How bacterial cells divide in two is not fully understood. Physicists now show that, at high concentrations, a crucial protein can assemble into ring-shaped filaments that constrict the cell, giving rise to two daughter cells.