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Aerobic exercise preserves brain volume and improves cognitive function

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:09pm
Using a new MRI technique, researchers found that adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who exercised four times a week over a six-month period experienced an increase in brain volume in specific, or local, areas of the brain, but adults who participated in aerobic exercise experienced greater gains than those who just stretched.
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Brain training video games help low-vision kids see better

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:08pm
Studies going back several years have shown that playing action video games (AVG) can help improve visual acuity. A new study by vision scientists has found that children with poor vision see vast improvement in their peripheral vision after only eight hours of training via kid-friendly video games. Most surprising to the scientists was the range of visual gains the children made, and that the gains were quickly acquired and stable when tested a year later.
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Lack of sleep costing US economy up to $411 billion per year

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:08pm
Lower productivity levels and the higher risk of mortality resulting from sleep deprivation have a significant effect on a nation's economy. Sleep deprivation increases the risk of mortality by 13 per cent and leads to the U.S. losing around 1.2 million working days a year. Increasing nightly sleep from under six hours to between six and seven hours could add $226.4 billion to the U.S. economy.
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Method for storing vaccines at room temperature

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:08pm
Several simple and inexpensive techniques make it possible to store antiviral-vaccines at room temperature for several months. This discovery could make a difference in inaccessible areas and developing countries where maintaining cold-chain transportation of vaccines is complicated and expensive.
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How did web-based cognitive therapy work for insomnia?

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:07pm
How well did a web-based cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia intervention work in a randomized clinical trial? A new article reports that adults assigned to receive the fully automated and interactive web-based Sleep Healthy Using the Internet (SHUTi) intervention had improved sleep compared with those adults just given access to a patient education website with information about insomnia.
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Quantum obstacle course changes material from superconductor to insulator

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:06pm
Researchers have demonstrated an unusual method of putting the brakes on superconductivity, the ability of a material to conduct an electrical current with zero resistance. The research shows that weak magnetic fields -- far weaker than those that normally interrupt superconductivity -- can interact with defects in a material to create a "random gauge field," a kind of quantum obstacle course that generates resistance for superconducting electrons.
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Tailor-made membranes for the environment

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:05pm
The combustion of fossil energy carriers in coal and gas power plants produces waste gases that are harmful to the environment. Researchers are working on methods to not only reduce such gases, but also utilize them. They are developing ceramic membranes with which pure hydrogen can be separated from carbon dioxide and water vapor. The hydrogen can then be used as a clean energy carrier, for example in fuel cells. The researchers have now been able to increase the efficiency of these membranes to an unprecedented level.
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Laser technique boosts aerial imaging of woodlands

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 6:05pm
A ground-breaking technique that allows green spaces to be mapped in 3D from an aircraft could boost biodiversity, aid human wellbeing and even help protect rainforests, say experts.
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CRISPR used for first time to correct clotting in newborn and adult mice

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 5:56pm
CRISPR/Cas9, a powerful genome editing tool, is showing promise for efficient correction of disease-causing mutations. For the first time, researchers have developed a dual gene therapy approach to deliver key components of a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting system to mice to treat hemophilia B. This disorder is also called factor IX deficiency and is caused by a missing or defective clotting protein.
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Preschoolers' expectations shape how they interpret speech

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 5:55pm
When we listen to people speak, we aren’t just hearing the sounds they’re making, we’re also actively trying to infer what they’re going to say. Someone might misspeak, forget a word, or be drowned out by background noise, and yet we often get their meaning anyway. This is because we use our past experience with language to hear what we expect them to say. Adults tend to manage this kind of “noisy channel” communication fairly easily, but new findings suggest 4- and 5-year-old children show the same adaptive ability.
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New method to improve predictions

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 5:55pm
Researchers have created a new method to analyze big data that better predicts outcomes in health care, politics and other fields.
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Parents should avoid pressuring young children over grades

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:47pm
Parents shouldn't obsess over grades and extracurricular activities for young schoolchildren, especially if such ambitions come at the expense of social skills and kindness, researchers state in a new report.
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Songbirds sound the alarm about traffic noise

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:42pm
The alarm calls of songbirds are dramatically impaired by road traffic noise, a new study demonstrates. Research has shown that signals critical for the survival of animals are compromised when birds live near even moderately busy roads.
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Genomics technique could accelerate detection of foodborne bacterial outbreaks

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:42pm
A new testing methodology based on metagenomics could accelerate the diagnosis of foodborne bacterial outbreaks, allowing public health officials to identify the microbial culprits in less than a day.
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Gram-negative bacteria may influence Alzheimer's disease pathology

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:42pm
For the first time, researchers have found higher levels of Gram-negative bacteria antigens in brain samples from late-onset Alzheimer’s disease patients. Compared to controls, patients with Alzheimer's had much higher levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E coli K99 pili protein. In addition, the research team also found LPS molecules congregated with amyloid plaques, which have been linked to Alzheimer’s pathology and progression.
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Study explains evolution phenomenon that puzzled Darwin

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:41pm
Why do some animals have extravagant, showy ornaments -- think deer antlers, peacock feathers and horns on beetles -- that can be a liability to survival? Researchers have a possible explanation for this puzzling phenomenon of evolution. Their new mathematical model reveals that in animals with ornamentation, males will evolve out of the tension between natural selection and sexual selection into two distinct subspecies, one with flashy, "costly" ornaments for attracting mates and one with subdued, "low-cost" ornaments.
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Beyond play: Sociologist explores how toys fuel stereotypes

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:40pm
Encouraging children to enjoy a wide variety of toys allows them to develop fully, according to one expert.
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Homeowners want incentives to conserve more water, survey shows

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 4:40pm
Respondents to an online survey of 3,000 homeowners in Florida, Texas and California said reducing the price of water-efficient equipment would be the most effective strategy to successfully conserve more water. That was followed by more practical information on household water conservation, easier identification of water-efficient appliances and better landscape irrigation ordinances.
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Vapors from some flavored e-liquids contain high levels of aldehydes

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 3:41pm
Traditional cigarettes pose a well-established risk to smokers' health, but the effects of electronic cigarettes are still being determined. Helping to flesh out this picture, researchers are reporting what happens to e-liquid flavorings when they're heated inside e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine-delivery systems. The study found that when converted into a vapor, some flavorings break down into toxic compounds at levels that exceed occupational safety standards.
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Mimicking bug eyes could brighten reflective signs, clothes

Wed, 30/11/2016 - 3:41pm
That bright, reflective coating used on road signs, bicycles and clothing are important safety measures at night. They help drivers get to their destinations while avoiding bicyclists and pedestrians in low-light conditions. Now, inspired by the structure of insect eyes, scientists have developed new materials that could improve the color and effectiveness of these safeguards.
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