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A novel methodology that, for the first time, combines 3-D and advanced range estimator technologies to provide highly detailed data on the range and movements of terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife species has been developed by researchers. One aspect of the study focused on learning more about the range and movements of the California condor using miniaturized GPS biotelemetry units attached to every condor released into the wild.
Women are under-represented in academic medicine resulting in a waste of public investment due to loss of research talent. a consequence of female under-representation, some areas of medicine are under-researched at a cost to patients and society. Discriminatory practices and unconscious bias, they say, continue to occur in academic medicine, despite a substantial fall in traditional discrepancies between men and women in medicine in recent years. The proportion of women entering medical school today is around 53%.
Testing for the presence of specific molecules present in the urine of pregnant women can give an indication in early pregnancy of whether a baby will be born premature or the fetus will suffer poor growth, according to research. Identifying these conditions early in pregnancy could potentially help reduce complications and manage any difficulties, although more work is needed before the findings can be translated to clinical settings.
An 'expressive therapy' group intervention helps women living with HIV disclose their health status and improves their social support, self-efficacy and the safety and quality of their relationships, a study has shown. "Medication alone is totally insufficient," said the study's first author. "Over 90 percent of our patients are on effective antiretroviral therapy but far too many are dying from suicide, addiction, and violence. Depression, addiction, and especially trauma are very common and often devastating for women living with HIV but are not being effectively addressed by most clinics."
'Fertigation,' drip irrigation and decentralized water treatment are new keys to a lush, green, sustainable lawn, researchers report. Their vision: a decentralized treatment system at a city's subdivision would be "tailored" to generate effluent during the summer that contained 15 parts per million (ppm) of the nutrient nitrate. Residents would then use this water to fertigate their lawns. Because drip systems put water directly into the soil homeowners wouldn't come in contact with it.
Blame it on the astrocytes: does brain's most abundant cell type have role in neurological disorders?
The demonstration that astrocytes, the brain's most abundant cell type, participate in the formation of inhibitory synapses in the cortex suggests an important role for these cells in some neurological disorders. Astrocytes, named for their star-like shape, are ubiquitous brain cells known for regulating excitatory synapse formation through cells. Recent studies have shown that astrocytes also play a role in forming inhibitory synapses, but the key players and underlying mechanisms have remained unknown until now.
Women are more likely to wear a red shirt when they are expecting to meet an attractive man, relative to an unattractive man or a woman. But do women view other women in red as being more sexually receptive? And would that result in a woman guarding her mate against a woman in red? A study has sought to answer these questions.
Novel treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis shows promise, but concerns for patient safety remain
Community health experts call for balanced approach to continued development of promising new TB drug in a new article. They argue that research into bedaquiline -- a new drug, fast tracked for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) -- should proceed cautiously in people with drug-sensitive tuberculosis.
Extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine boosts immunity in children and could speed up global eradication efforts
Giving children under 5 years old an extra dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) helps to boost their immunity to the poliovirus and should be added to vaccination programs in polio-endemic countries and those facing a high risk of imported cases, suggests new research.
The first dengue vaccine candidate to reach phase 3 clinical testing has shown moderate protection (56%) against the disease in Asian children, according to new research. There is no licensed vaccine available to treat or prevent dengue fever, and efforts to develop one have been complicated by the fact that dengue is caused by four distinct dengue viruses, and a vaccine must target all four serotypes.
Did community development practitioners offer enough relief to neighborhoods affected by U.S. housing crisis?
Many communities in the United States are riddled with vacancies and foreclosed properties. A researcher explored the efforts of community development practitioners in the United States to prevent the recent epidemic of mortgage foreclosures and lessen its devastating effects.
Football success in Brazil may not be over yet for England. Although England’s national team failed to make the knockout stages of the FIFA World Cup, the University of Hertfordshire’s robot football team, the ‘Bold Hearts’, is set to fly out to Brazil next week to compete in the 2014 RoboCup robotics world championship – taking place in João Pessoa, Brazil, 19 – 24 July 2014.
A new ultrasound imaging technique has provided the first ever in vivo visualization of activity in the piriform cortex of rats during odor perception. This deep-seated brain structure plays an important role in olfaction, and was inaccessible to functional imaging until now. This work also sheds new light on the still poorly known functioning of the olfactory system, and notably how information is processed in the brain.
Using electronic health records to understand the best available treatment for patients, from a range of possible options, is more efficient and less costly for taxpayers than the existing clinical trial process, a new study shows.
Counselling and guidance techniques developed in the Western world may not be appropriate for many African countries, where cultural influences, government policies and the availability of resources can have significant implications for service delivery. In order to develop more robust techniques, researchers and practitioners need rigorous analysis of professional practice across the nations of Africa.
A key mechanism in the formation of the head in frogs has been explained by researchers. Previous studies had reported genes involved in head development. However, it still remained unclear how those genes interact with each other for head formation as a whole. By employing Next-Generation sequencing techniques, which provide scientists with massive amounts of DNA sequence data, this study has uncovered a genetic mechanism underlying head formation, which is one of the most important processes in animal development.
Global vegetable production currently depends on plastics: approximately 15 million hectares of agricultural land are covered under black horticultural plastics. While alternatives to the plastic cover have been under development for several years, it is only now that a new biodegradable cover, suitable for both professional and subsistence farms, is entering the market.
Mice consuming a supplement of omega 3 fatty acids had healthier joints than those fed diets high in saturated fats and omega 6 fatty acids, according to researchers. “Our results suggest that dietary factors play a more significant role than mechanical factors in the link between obesity and osteoarthritis,” said the study's senior author.
Using spider toxins to study the proteins that let nerve cells send out electrical signals, researchers say they have stumbled upon a biological tactic that may offer a new way to protect crops from insect plagues in a safe and environmentally responsible way.
Re-tearing a repaired knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) happens all too frequently, however a recent study suggests that identification and patient education regarding modifiable risk factors may minimize the chance of a future ACL tear.