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Updated: 32 min 41 sec ago

Better to give than to receive: Personality affects knowledge exchange

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:48pm
Personality plays an important role in knowledge exchange. Givers share more important knowledge than takers, according to a recent study. Working professionals were classified as givers, matchers and takers based on a personality measure. The researchers examined how these three interaction styles affected resource and information sharing. The main finding: Givers not only share more resources and more information, but they also share mainly the important information. Takers keep everything for themselves.
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Sensors that improve rail transport safety

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:48pm
A new kind of human-machine communication is to make it possible to detect damage to rail vehicles before it’s too late. The technology also leads to an improvement in the servicing of trains, providing it only when needed. The technology relies on a cloud-supported, wireless network of sensors.
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Simulation models optimize water power

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:47pm
The Columbia River basin in the Pacific Northwest offers great potential for water power; hydroelectric power stations there generate over 20,000 megawatts already. Now a simulation model will help optimize the operation of the extensive dam system.
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Poor hearing confines older adults to their homes

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:47pm
Vision and hearing problems reduce the active participation of older people in various events and activities. Group activities are challenging for older people with hearing problems, as they often have a great deal of difficulty conversing with several people in a noisy environment. The results also showed that people with hearing difficulties perceived their ability to live their lives as they would like as poorer than those with good hearing.
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Aggressive behaviour increases adolescent drinking, depression doesn't

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:47pm
Adolescents who behave aggressively are more likely to drink alcohol and in larger quantities than their peers, according to a recent study completed in Finland. Depression and anxiety, on the other hand, were not linked to increased alcohol use. The study investigated the association between psychosocial problems and alcohol use among 4074 Finnish 13- to 18-year-old adolescents.
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New prosthetic arm controlled by neural messages

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:47pm
A new prosthetic system aims to identify the memory of movement in the amputee’s brain in order to manipulate the device. Controlling a prosthetic arm by just imagining a motion may now be possible.
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Rosetta: 100 kilometres to 'touchdown'

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:47pm
The Rosetta spacecraft is approaching just 100 kilometres from its target comet, "Chury", today. After a ten-year journey, the Bernese instrument, ROSINA, will soon "smell" the first molecules of the comet's gas tail.
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Triangulum galaxy snapped by VST

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:47pm
The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile has captured a beautifully detailed image of the galaxy Messier 33. This nearby spiral, the second closest large galaxy to our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is packed with bright star clusters, and clouds of gas and dust. The new picture is amongst the most detailed wide-field views of this object ever taken and shows the many glowing red gas clouds in the spiral arms with particular clarity.
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Mindfulness training benefits U.S. veterans with diabetes

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:39pm
Mindfulness training, including focused breathing and awareness training, helped U.S. veterans with diabetes significantly lower their diabetes-related distress and blood sugar levels and improve their self-management of the disease, researchers report. Diabetes-related distress is associated with poorer self-management and negative effects of the disease.
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Mental health coaching improves outcomes for people with diabetes, depression

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 1:39pm
Mental health coaching significantly eased depression and reduced blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, researchers report. A significant number of people with diabetes suffer from depression, which can interfere with their ability to participate in self-care activities such as monitoring, being active, eating healthy and taking medication. These self-care activities are key to managing the chronic, progressive disease.
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Rosetta spacecraft arrives at comet destination

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 11:12am
After a decade-long journey chasing its target, ESA's Rosetta has today become the first spacecraft to rendezvous with a comet, opening a new chapter in Solar System exploration. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and Rosetta now lie 405 million kilometres from Earth, about half way between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars, rushing towards the inner Solar System at nearly 55,000 kilometres per hour.
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Could your brain be reprogrammed to work better?

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 6:53am
Scientists from Australia and France have shown that electromagnetic stimulation can alter brain organization, which may make your brain work better. In a new study, the researchers demonstrated that weak sequential electromagnetic pulses (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation -- or rTMS) on mice can shift abnormal neural connections to more normal locations.
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Study of aerosols stands to improve climate models

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 6:47am
Of all the factors that influence Earth's changing climate, the effect that tiny particles in Earth's atmosphere called aerosols have on clouds is the least well understood. Aerosols scatter and absorb incoming sunlight and affect the formation and properties of clouds. Now a new, comprehensive global analysis of satellite data has quantified how changes in aerosol levels affect these warm clouds over the ocean.
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Baby aspirin? Many doctors don't recommend, despite guidelines

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:13am
A majority of middle-aged men and women eligible to take aspirin to prevent heart attack and stroke do not recall their doctors ever telling them to do so, according to a study of an American sample of more than 3,000 patients. The finding illustrates a common disconnect between public health guidelines and what occurs in clinical practice. The study is consistent with other research showing that physicians often do not recommend aspirin as prevention therapy to the general population, despite established guidelines.
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Angry bees: Insect aggression boosted by altering brain metabolism

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:12am
Scientists report they can crank up insect aggression simply by interfering with a basic metabolic pathway in the insect brain. Their study, of fruit flies and honey bees, shows a direct, causal link between brain metabolism -- how the brain generates the energy it needs to function -- and aggression.
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Finding may aid recovery from spinal cord injury

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:12am
Researchers have achieved the first conclusive non-invasive measurement of neural signaling in the spinal cords of healthy human volunteers. Their technique may aid efforts to help patients recover from spinal cord injuries and other disorders affecting spinal cord function, including multiple sclerosis.
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New hospital screening tool helps find children at nutritional risk easier, study finds

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:12am
While hospitals do not commonly screen children for nutrition, a new tool developed could change that. The Pediatric Nutrition Screening Tool (PNST) was found to be more effective than the existing pediatric Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA). The PNST identified 37.6 percent of patients as being at nutritional risk, whereas the pediatric SGNA identified 34.2 percent. The PNSA was also effective at finding patients with low Body Mass Index (BMI).
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Common tuberculosis vaccine can be used to prevent infection as well as disease

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:12am
The vaccine used to protect against tuberculosis disease, bacillus calmette-guerin or BCG, also protects against tuberculosis infection, mycobacterium, as well as protecting against progression from infection to disease, finds new research. The BCG vaccine has been subject to numerous trials and studies over several decades, which have shown that it has a 60-80% protective efficacy against severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) in children. But to date there has been a lack of evidence on whether the vaccine is effective against TB infection.
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Alteplase given promptly after stroke reduces long-term disability, even in older people, those with severe stroke

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:11am
Many more stroke patients could benefit from thrombolytic treatment (the use of drugs to break up or dissolve blood clots), but it needs to be administered as quickly as possible after the first signs of illness, according to new findings from the largest meta-analysis to date investigating the clot-busting drug alteplase. The study involved more than 6700 stroke patients.
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Aspirin: scientists believe cancer prevention benefits outweigh harms

Wed, 06/08/2014 - 2:11am
Taking aspirin can significantly reduce the risk of developing – and dying from – the major cancers of the digestive tract, i.e. bowel, stomach and oesophageal cancer, researchers report. For the first time, scientists have reviewed all the available evidence from many studies and clinical trials assessing both the benefits and harms of preventive use of aspirin.
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