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Drug-use may hamper moral judgment

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 3:49pm
Regular cocaine and methamphetamine users can have difficulty choosing between right and wrong, perhaps because the specific parts of their brains used for moral processing and evaluating emotions are damaged by their prolonged drug habits, according to a study among prison inmates.
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Possible to account for disadvantaged populations in Medicare's payment programs

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 3:49pm
Medicare's value-based payment programs could take into account social risk factors -- such as low socio-economic position, residence in disadvantaged neighborhoods, or race and ethnicity -- but any proposal to do so will entail both advantages and disadvantages that need to be carefully considered, experts warn.
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Researchers report cybersecurity risks in 3-D printing

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 3:49pm
Researchers examined two aspects of additive manufacturing (AM), or 3-D printing, that could have cybersecurity implications and harmful economic impact: printing orientation and insertion of fine defects. They found that because CAD files do not give instructions for printer head orientation, malefactors could deliberately alter the process without detection. Also, sub-millimeter defects that can appear between printed layers with exposure to fatigue and the elements were found to be undetectable by common industrial monitoring techniques.
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What free will looks like in the brain

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 3:49pm
Researchers have, for the first time, glimpsed the human brain making a purely voluntary decision to act.
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Loss of independence after surgery for older patients associated with increased risk of hospital readmission

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 3:49pm
A recent study examined loss of independence (LOI; defined as a decline in function or mobility, increased care needs at home, or discharge to a nonhome destination) among older patients after surgical procedures and the association of LOI with readmission and death after discharge. Currently, quality metrics prioritized by hospitals and medical professionals focus on discrete outcomes, such as readmission or mortality.
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Stressful trigger events associated with risk of violent crime

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 3:49pm
Trigger events, including exposure to violence, were associated with increased risk of violent crime in the week following exposure among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and among individuals without psychiatric diagnoses who were included for comparison, report investigators at the conclusion of their study.
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Playing action video games boosts visual motor skill underlying driving

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:58pm
Playing action-based video games may boost players' ability to coordinate incoming visual information with their motor control, a skill critical to many real-world behaviors including driving, new research shows.
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New materials for construction of metal-organic 2-dimensional quasicrystals

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:58pm
Unlike classical crystals, quasicrystals do not comprise periodic units, even though they do have a superordinate structure. The formation of the fascinating mosaics that they produce is barely understood. In the context of an international collaborative effort, researchers have now presented a methodology that allows the production of two-dimensional quasicrystals from metal-organic networks, opening the door to the development of promising new materials.
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Food nudging can help us to eat in a healthier way

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:58pm
What we eat in the canteen and buy in the supermarket for dinner depends on the order in which the dishes are presented, and how easy it is to get to the products. This is the conclusion of a collaborative review of existing research into food 'nudging.' Until now there's been very little research on this topic, but researchers behind the review expect healthy food nudging to be a predominant subject in the coming years.
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Analysis of ant colonies could improve network algorithms

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:58pm
An analysis of ant colony behavior could yield better algorithms for network communication, say investigators. Biologists have long suspected that ants base their population-density estimates on the frequency with which they -- literally -- bump into other ants while randomly exploring their environments. That theory gets new support from a theoretical paper. The paper shows that observations from random exploration of the environment converge very quickly on an accurate estimate of population density. Indeed, they converge about as quickly as is theoretically possible.
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Simple procedure could improve treatment for common eye disease

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:57pm
A new, minimally invasive procedure appears to be effective for many patients with the common eye disease Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, without the potential side effects and cost of the current standard of care, a cornea transplant.
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Stand-up comics more likely to die prematurely than film comedians and dramatic actors

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:57pm
The world's best stand-up comedians -- household names including Kevin Hart, Amy Schumer, Jimmy Fallon, Chris Rock, Jerry Seinfield, Ricky Gervais and Eddie Murphy -- are more likely to die early than comedic and dramatic screen and stage actors, according to a landmark study.
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Study finds differing treatment options for women smokers

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:57pm
A new study has found important differences between women and men in their ability to quit smoking when taking medications commonly prescribed to help smokers quit.
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Fat cells may play key role in battle against breast cancer

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:57pm
New research highlights how fat cells could help determine the most effective way to fight breast cancer, including using exercise to combat the disease. For nearly a half century, researchers have studied the links between obesity and breast cancer. This recent study has revealed specifically that adiponectin and leptin are possible reasons for poorer response to therapy and higher risk of death in obese persons than in others.
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Driving ability of people with cognitive impairment difficult to assess: Research review

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:35pm
No single assessment tool is able to consistently determine driving ability in people with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment, a research review has found.
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Not all 'front-of-package' nutrition information produces the same effect

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:34pm
Marketing researchers have compared different types of front-of-package nutrition information labels and found that a "one-size-fits-all" label is not suitable for all shopping scenarios.
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Hungry parents may feed their kids more, study finds

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:34pm
The hungrier parents are at mealtimes, a new study shows, the more they may feed their young children, which could have implications for childhood obesity.
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Breakthrough in scaling up life-changing stem cell production

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:31pm
Scientists have discovered a new method of creating human stem cells which could solve the big problem of the large-scale production needed to fully realize the potential of these remarkable cells for understanding and treating disease.
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The complex crosstalk between obesity, breast cancer

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:31pm
A new study describes how inflammation that characterizes fatty tissue is one of the main microenvironment actors responsible for promoting cancer. The authors also describe the involvement of steroid hormones and others factors produced by adipose tissue in breast cancer development.
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Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter–gatherer cooperation

Wed, 13/07/2016 - 2:29pm
Reciprocal food-sharing is more prevalent in stable hunter-gatherer camps, shows new research that sheds light on the evolutionary roots of human cooperation.
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