Updated: 1 hour 42 min ago
Demographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors contribute to a major gender disparity among US men and women undergoing weight loss surgeries. Men undergo the surgeries in far lower numbers than women, researchers report.
Adult survivors of preterm births may have a lung capacity that resembles the healthy elderly or casual smokers by the time they reach their early 20s, according to a new study.
Groundbreaking images of the Sun give a first-ever detailed view of the interior structure of umbrae -- the dark patches in the center of sunspots -- revealing dynamic magnetic fields responsible for the plumes of plasma that emerge as bright dots interrupting their darkness.
A discovery has been made that may change the principles for treating certain types of cancer. The discovery relates to the so-called telomeres that constitute the ends of human chromosomes. Short telomeres are related to unhealthy lifestyles, old age and the male gender -- all of which are risk factors in terms of high mortality. Up until now, the assumption has been that short telomeres are related to ill health. The challenge for researchers worldwide has therefore been to find out whether or not the short telomeres were indeed a signifier or an indirect cause of increased mortality.
According to the American Cancer Society, in 2015 about 17,000 new cases of esophageal cancer will be diagnosed, and about 15,600 people will die from the disease. While the 5-year survival rate in the 1960s and 1970s was only about 5%, improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and management have led to improved survival. However, information is lacking about what happens to long-term survivors of esophageal cancer. New research shows that while five-year survival is up to 39%, these patients still face many health risks and should be monitored for 10 years or more.
The brain function of people addicted to cocaine is different from that of people who are not addicted, and is often linked to highly impulsive behavior, according to a new scientific study.
Patients with traumatic brain injuries are not benefiting from recent advances in cognitive neuroscience research -- and they should be, scientists report. Now, cognitive neuroscientists have identified dozens of brain networks, each of which engages a specific set of brain structures to perform particular tasks. This information, researchers say, should factor into the therapies that these patients receive.
Researchers have recently developed a device that can turn any smartphone into a DNA-scanning fluorescent microscope.
Researchers have developed a new high-speed camera that can record events at a rate of more than 1-trillion-frames-per-second. That speed is more than one thousand times faster than conventional high-speed cameras.
As businesses move into international markets, they often do so with a 'one size fits all' customer satisfaction strategy. But factors as basic as how consumers prioritize pricing and quality can differ sharply across cultures and economic systems, according to a new study. Success will depend in part on understanding these perceptions across cultures.
Cardiomyopathies are diseases of weakened heart muscle, which can lead to heart enlargement and heart failure. The conditions are often genetically inherited. Gene therapy can clip out genetic material linked to heart failure and replace it with the normal gene in human cardiac cells, according to a study.
When trying to identify 'good' customers, managers often ignore those who return products, or might even consider those customers non-ideal, decreasing the resources devoted to them. In the long term, however, satisfactory product return experiences can actually create a valuable long-term customer whose contributions far outweigh the associated costs, according to a new study.
The famous sunspots on the surface of the Earth's star result from the dynamics of strong magnetic fields, and their numbers are an important indicator of the state of activity on the Sun. Researchers have been conducting multifractal analysis into the changes in the numbers of sunspots. The resulting graphs were surprisingly asymmetrical in shape, suggesting that sunspots may be involved in hitherto unknown physical processes.
Fungi can have a great economic impact. In industry, they are used as a source of enzymes or antibiotics. But they can also cause considerable economic damage as they are responsible for infections in plants (rice, wheat, maize, etc.), fruit and humans. Their capacity to cause infection increases due to the rapid dispersion of their conidia in the air or through other mediums. The genetic and molecular processes that lead to conidia generation are now the focus of a new study.
A long-sought biomarker for chronic stress in fish has now been discovered. Fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI-) axis to release cortisol into the blood. Plasma cortisol is a poor predictor for chronic stress as it reflects no more than a snap-shot of the stress response at a given moment. On the contrary, the scale glucocorticoid, especially cortisol, content was shown to reflect the stress history of the fish, researchers report.
The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) plus medical management with rehabilitation to medical management plus rehabilitation in patients with severe emphysema. In 2003, the results of NETT demonstrated that LVRS could improve lung function in patients with emphysema, and that the procedure led to improved survival. Yet, adoption of LVRS has been very slow with concerns expressed regarding safety and long-term efficacy. Now researchers present the results of ten years of’ experience with LVRS for emphysema.
Logic would dictate that consumers receiving new market information would jump at the chance to adjust their investments accordingly. In practice, however, many people associate change with loss of control. They crave the idea of permanence or closure to such an extent that they would rather freeze decisions in place even if, ironically, this puts them more at risk, according to a new study.
Psychology, biology, and mathematics have come together to show that the occurrence of altruism and spite -- helping or harming others at a cost to oneself -- depends on similarity not just between two interacting individuals but also to the rest of their neighbors.
The global industrial sector accounts for more than half of the total energy used every year. Now scientists are inventing a new artificial photosynthetic system that could one day reduce industry's dependence on fossil fuel-derived energy by powering part of the sector with solar energy and bacteria. The system converts light and carbon dioxide into building blocks for plastics, pharmaceuticals and fuels -- all without electricity.
When consumers taste cheap wine and rate it highly because they believe it is expensive, is it because prejudice has blinded them to the actual taste, or has prejudice actually changed their brain function, causing them to experience the cheap wine in the same physical way as the expensive wine? Research has shown that preconceived beliefs may create a placebo effect so strong that the actual chemistry of the brain changes.