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One of the world's largest gene libraries for the Candida glabrata yeast, which is harmful to humans, has been developed by researchers. Molecular analysis of the Candida glabrata fungus mutations led to the discovery of 28 new genes that are partly responsible for the yeast's tolerance of common drugs. Infectious diseases caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria and parasites represent the world's number one cause of death. A few dozen types of harmful fungi claim more than 1.5 million human lives every year.
Zipper action triggers bacterial invasion: Scientists discover new strategy germs use to invade cells
The hospital germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa wraps itself into the membrane of human cells. Now researchers have identified a novel mechanism of bacterial invasion, outlining how Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses lipids in the cell membrane to make its way into host cells.
Warfarin, the longtime standard treatment for atrial fibrillation, is facing competition from new options in the anticoagulant drug marketplace including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. A new study documents the rapid adoption of these novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) into clinical practice. By mid-2013 NOACs accounted for 62% of all new anticoagulant prescriptions yet this represents 98% of total anticoagulant-related drug costs.
Using a radio telescope with frequencies just above those of commercial FM radio stations, a European team of astronomers has obtained the most sensitive image of a galaxy below 1 GHz.
A new image shows two dramatic star formation regions in the southern Milky Way. The first is of these, on the left, is dominated by the star cluster NGC 3603, located 20,000 light-years away, in the Carina–Sagittarius spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy. The second object, on the right, is a collection of glowing gas clouds known as NGC 3576 that lies only about half as far from Earth.
Providing futile treatment in the intensive care unit sets off a chain reaction that causes other ill patients needing medical attention to wait for critical care beds, according to a study. The study is the first to show that when unbeneficial medical care is provided, others who might be able to benefit from treatment are harmed, said the study's lead author.
A group of inhibitory neurons, whose loss leads to sleep disruption in experimental animals, are substantially diminished among the elderly and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, researchers have found. The authors examined the brains of 45 study subjects (median age at death, 89.2), identifying ventrolateral preoptic neurons by staining the brains for the neurotransmitter galanin. They then correlated the actigraphic rest-activity behavior of the 45 individuals in the year prior to their deaths with the number of remaining ventrolateral preoptic neurons at autopsy.
The area of the brain involved in multitasking and ways to train it have been identified by a research team. The research includes a model to better predict the effectiveness of this training.
Growing up poor affects adults' sense of control, impulsiveness when faced with economic uncertainty
Growing up poor can influence people's sense of control and in turn may lead them to more impulsive decision-making and quickly give up on challenging tasks in uncertain situations, according to new research.
Researchers have developed a new type of solar concentrator that when placed over a window creates solar energy while allowing people to actually see through the window. It is called a transparent luminescent solar concentrator and can be used on buildings, cell phones and any other device that has a flat, clear surface.
Earth's magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. Now it has provided the basis for a technique which might, one day, be used to characterize the chemical composition of fluid mixtures in their native environments. Researchers have carried out nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using an ultra-low magnetic field comparable to Earth's magnetic field.
The way parents balance their work schedules may affect their adolescent children's eating habits, according to researchers. For example, parents who spend time with their adolescent kids after school may increase the likelihood that those children will eat regular dinners, according to the researchers. Adolescents having mothers who stay home before school are more likely to eat breakfast. Regular meals at home can help children and adolescents avoid weight problems.
Stimulating nerves in your ear could improve the health of your heart, researchers have discovered. Scientists used a standard TENS machine like those designed to relieve labour pains to apply electrical pulses to the tragus, the small raised flap at the front of the ear immediately in front of the ear canal.
Deaths from heart disease and stroke are declining overall in Europe, but at differing rates, according to research, which provides an update for 2014 on the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe, shows that death rates from CVD (diseases of the heart and blood vessels) vary enormously.
Dyslexia charities should give a more balanced account of the evidence for colored overlays and lenses in dyslexia, say experts. An accumulation of evidence supports the view that dyslexia is a verbal (not visual) disorder, and shows that reading difficulties are best addressed by interventions that target underlying weaknesses in phonological language skills and letter knowledge.
Engineering bone growth: Coated tissue scaffolds help body grow new bone to repair injuries or congenital defects
Chemical engineers have devised a new implantable tissue scaffold coated with bone growth factors that are released slowly over a few weeks. When applied to bone injuries or defects, this coated scaffold induces the body to rapidly form new bone that looks and behaves just like the original tissue. This type of coated scaffold could offer a dramatic improvement over the current standard for treating bone injuries, which involves transplanting bone from another part of the patient's body -- a painful process that does not always supply enough bone.
New measurements from fish purchased at retail seafood counters in 10 different states show the extent to which mislabeling can expose consumers to unexpectedly high levels of mercury, a harmful pollutant. Fishery stock 'substitutions' -- which falsely present a fish of the same species, but from a different geographic origin -- are the most dangerous mislabeling offense, according to new research.
The tarsier is the 'flagship' iconic species for promoting environmental stewardship and ecotourism in the Philippines, a nation suffering from large-scale destruction of natural habitat.
In recent years, the number of patent applications for electrochemical energy storage technologies has soared. According to a study, the largest volume of applications is submitted by developers of lithium batteries. The study offers a first differentiated analysis of which technologies will be viable in the exit from fossil-fuel energy. European and US companies are falling behind economically, as Asian companies apply for a substantially higher number of patents.
The quality of cardiac rehabilitation programs across Canada is strong, with specific criteria areas now identified as requiring further enhancement to improve patient outcomes, according to a new study. 'We are the first to comprehensively assess cardiac rehabilitation quality -- what we are doing well and where we should do better -- to this degree across the country,' says a study author.