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Motivation to bully is regulated by brain reward circuits

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:52pm
Researchers have identified nerve cell communication between specific brain regions, providing insight for the development of new therapeutic strategies, and new information on possible motivation for bullying.
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Some surfaces are wetted by water, others are water-repellent: A new material can be both

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:52pm
Scientists have discovered a robust surface whose adhesive and wetting properties can be switched using electricity.
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Country pledges overshoot Paris temperature limit

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:52pm
Individual country pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions would need to be strengthened in order to limit future climate change to well below the 2 degrees Celsius limit included in the Paris climate agreement, according to a new assessment.
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Watching a forest breathe

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:52pm
For the first time, scientists traced carbon dioxide flows through a forest during photosynthesis and respiration, correcting long-standing assumptions about how plants exchange the greenhouse gas with the atmosphere on an ecosystem-wide level. The results could help make climate prediction models more accurate.
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Viral protein silences immune alarm signals

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:52pm
Viruses must avoid a host's immune system to establish successful infections -- and scientists have discovered another tool that viruses use to frustrate host defenses. New research demonstrates a novel mechanism by which viruses shut down alarm signals that trigger immune responses. This finding may open the door to future tools for controlling unwanted inflammation in severe infections, cancers and other settings.
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Plate tectonics without jerking: Detailed recordings of earthquakes on ultraslow mid-ocean ridges

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:52pm
The earthquake distribution on ultra-slow mid-ocean ridges differs fundamentally from other spreading zones. Water circulating at a depth of up to 15 kilometers leads to the formation of rock that resembles soft soap. This is how the continental plates on ultra-slow mid-ocean ridges may move without jerking, while the same process in other regions leads to many minor earthquakes, according to geophysicists.
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Asteroid day will draw eyes to the stars, but the more urgent threat may be under our feet

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:06pm
Knowing when an asteroid could impact Earth would be nice, but learning more about the impact a super volcano eruption at Yellowstone would have on civilization — and how to be ready for it — might be more prudent.
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Make no mistake, revenge is (bitter) sweet

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 5:04pm
Deep, dark and sometimes overwhelming, the human compulsion to seek revenge is a complex emotion that science has found incredibly hard to explain. Despite popular consensus that "revenge is sweet," years of experimental research have suggested otherwise, finding that revenge is seldom as satisfying as we anticipate and often leaves the avenger less happy in the long run. New research is adding a twist to the science of revenge, showing that our love-hate relationship with this dark desire is indeed a mixed bag, making us feel both good and bad, for reasons we might not expect.
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Findings show gender, not race, a factor in college engineering dropouts

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:59pm
Researchers are exploring how ethnic and gender variables affect retention rates, goal setting and satisfaction among engineering students. Preliminary findings in the middle of this five-year study found no differences in retention between Latino and white engineering students, but did show differences between men and women. Their study could help shape methods needed to retain students in engineering fields.
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Watching the brain during language learning

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:59pm
For the first time, researchers have captured images of the brain during the initial hours and days of learning a new language. They use an artificial language with real structures to show how new linguistic information is integrated into the same brain areas used for your native language.
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Everolimus R-CHOP combination safe for treating diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:58pm
The targeted therapy everolimus may be safely combined with R-CHOP for new, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the results of a pilot study. R-CHOP is a combination of drugs used to treat lymphoma. The combination includes rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone.
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Researchers identify the molecular roots of lung damage in preemies with GI disease

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:58pm
Scientists have figured out a root cause of the lung damage that occurs in up to 10 percent of premature infants who develop necrotizing enterocolitis, a disorder that damages and kills the lining of the intestine.
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Saved by the sun: Solar-powered oxygen delivery system helps save lives in Uganda

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:58pm
A new twist on the use of renewable energy is saving children's lives in Africa. The innovation -- a solar-powered oxygen delivery system -- is providing concentrated oxygen in hospital for children suffering from severe pneumonia.
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Allergy-causing 'bad guy' cells unexpectedly prove life-saving in C. difficile

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:58pm
Researchers have identified immune cells vital for protecting us from potentially deadly C. difficile. Surprisingly, those cells are often vilified for their role in causing asthma and allergies. But when it comes to C. difficile, they could be the difference in life and death.
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Key power-splitting component for terahertz waves

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:58pm
One of the most basic components of any communications network is a power splitter that allows a signal to be sent to multiple users and devices. Researchers have now developed just such a device for terahertz radiation -- a range of frequencies that may one day enable data transfer up to 100 times faster than current cellular and Wi-Fi networks.
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Northern bird found to be more resilient to winter weather

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:58pm
Northern wrens are larger and more resilient to winter weather than those living in the south, new research reveals. The research means that populations inhabiting regions where winters are more severe show some form of adaptation. The research team say that their findings have particular relevance to our understanding of how birds and other species are able to respond to climate change.
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Surprising qualities of insulator ring surfaces

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:56pm
Topological insulators behave like insulators at their core and allow good conductivity on their surface. They owe their characteristics to a new quantum state within the material discovered in 2007 and 2009 for 2-D and 3-D materials, respectively. Scientists studying the surface of ring-shaped, or toric, topological insulators, have just discovered some characteristics that had only previously been confirmed in spheres.
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Rate of decline of cardiovascular deaths slows in US

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:56pm
Recent national trends in death rates due to all cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease (HD), stroke, and cancer, have been evaluated by research, who also evaluated the gap between mortality rates from heart disease and cancer.
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Ovarian cancer study uncovers new biology

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 4:56pm
In what is believed to be the largest study of its kind, scientists led a study that examined the proteomes of 169 ovarian cancer patients to identify critical proteins expressed by their tumors.
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Educating parents on healthy infant sleep habits may help prevent obesity

Wed, 29/06/2016 - 3:10pm
Teaching parents bedtime techniques to encourage healthy sleep habits in their infants may help prevent obesity, according to researchers. Strong links exist between inadequate sleep and childhood obesity.
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