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Solar radiation variability over Italy in the last 55 years reconstructed for the first time

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 2:36pm
Surface solar radiation variability over Italy from the end of the 1950s has been reconstructed in a new framework, report scientists. This information -- based on more than 50 daily records distributed all over the Italian territory -- is completely innovative, as surface solar radiation records had never been analyzed for this area.
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Scope and characteristics of adverse drug reactions in the general population

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 2:36pm
In a study of 1000 adult patients with unplanned admission to a tertiary hospital, the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) at the time of admission was 12.4 percent, and the prevalence of ADRs causing admission to the hospital was 8.1 percent. The most common ADRs were gastrointestinal-related, while the most common drug category causing ADRs were cardiovascular drugs.
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Direct observation of graphene decoupling on Cu(111)

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:50pm
A recent quantum mechanical study of graphene has elucidated the intercalation mechanism and pathways for graphene decoupling from the copper substrate.
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New anode material set to boost lithium-ion battery capacity

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:50pm
A team of researchersclaims to have made yet another step towards finding a solution to accelerate the commercialization of silicon anode for Lithium-ion batteries.
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Consumption from within: How the brain controls our appetite

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:50pm
Researchers show how our brain activates self-destruct mechanisms when it is low on energy to regulate appetite. The scientists have uncovered the mechanisms behind the enzyme that controls our appetite in response to low glucose availability in the brain.
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Glutamate plays previously unknown role in neuromuscular development

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:45pm
In mice, glutamate plays a vital role in controlling how muscles and nerves are wired together during development, researchers have discovered. Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in the brain.
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Health coverage on the rise for those in the justice system, study finds

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:45pm
During the first years of the Affordable Care Act, a new study finds, the rate of health insurance coverage rose significantly among people who in the past year had been arrested or were on probation or parole, and they were more likely to get treatment for serious mental illness, alcohol use disorders and substance use issues.
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What makes a video game great? There’s now a scientific way to stop GUESSing

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:45pm
Human factors researchers have developed the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS), a psychometrically validated instrument that measures satisfaction on key factors such as playability, narratives, creative freedom, social connectivity, and visual aesthetics.
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Depression in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:44pm
A two-way link between depression and gestational diabetes has been uncovered by researchers. Women who reported feeling depressed during the first two trimesters of pregnancy were nearly twice as likely to develop gestational diabetes, according to an analysis of pregnancy records. Conversely, a separate analysis found that women who developed gestational diabetes were more likely to report postpartum depression six weeks after giving birth, compared to a similar group of women who did not develop gestational diabetes.
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Artificial intelligence reveals mechanism behind brain tumor

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 1:39pm
Researchers have used computer modelling to study how brain tumors arise. The study illustrated how researchers in the future will be able to use large-scale data to find new disease mechanisms and identify new treatment targets.
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Relationship, behavioral differences between children, early adolescents who die by suicide

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:48pm
Some individual characteristics and precipitating circumstances may be more prominent in children who die by suicide compared with early adolescents who die by suicide. It is the first study to exclusively focus on precipitating circumstances of suicide in children and early adolescents, defined as ages 5 to 14.
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Let's talk about more than sex: Parents in favor of expanding health education

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:48pm
Teaching kids about drugs, alcohol and sex appears to be less controversial than ever before but parents want to see health education classes cover more topics.
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Transcranial direct current stimulation raises glutamate levels in humans

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:47pm
The notion that low levels of electrical stimulation applied to the scalp, barely enough to create a mild tingling sensation, could activate the brain is a relatively new and somewhat controversial idea. The technique, called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to modify mood, emotion, and cognition, yet researchers lack any evidence for how -- or even if -- it directly modulates brain activity. Still, some researchers see its potential for a new strategy to treat psychiatric disorders.
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New study compares approaches to prevent malaria in pregnancy

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:47pm
A screen and treat strategy for pregnant women in sub Saharan African does not reduce adverse outcomes compared with standard preventative treatment for malaria, say researchers.
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Towards stable propagation of light in nano-photonic fibers

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:46pm
Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. Researchers have studied how to achieve a more stable propagation of light for future optical technologies.
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Targeting dormant HIV

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:46pm
The discovery of a novel, advanced technique to identify the rare cells where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hides in patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is an important step forward in the search for a HIV/AIDS cure.
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I in eye contact

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:46pm
Eye contact is a powerful social signal. Another person’s direct gaze not only increases physiological arousal, but it has, in fact, several different types of effects on cognition and behavior. Research has shown that seeing another person’s direct gaze increases peoples’ awareness of themselves, improves memory for contextually presented information, increases the likelihood of behaving in a pro-social manner, and makes people evaluate the gazer more positively. But why does a direct gaze have such diverse effects? 
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Neurofeedback: When output becomes part of input

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:46pm
Neurofeedback is a technique used for the treatment of clinical disorders (like depression, anxiety, chronic pain, ADHD and schizophrenia etc.) and enhancement of brain performance. It is based on the “self-regulation” of brain activations underpinned by the principles of feedback control systems. Feedback systems can be found in areas such as cybernetics, industrial automation, quality control, optimization and so on. A new study has reviewed the literature on feedback control systems and neurofeedback in order to provide some insights into how the basic principles of feedback control systems are the building blocks of the advanced brain-computer interfacing technique popularly dubbed “neurofeedback.”
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Medication to prevent heart attacks linked with reduced heart attack severity

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:46pm
Medications prescribed to prevent heart attacks such as statins and aspirin are also associated with reduced heart attack severity, according to research. The observational study in nearly 15,000 patients provides further evidence of the benefit of taking these medications.
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Desalinated sea water linked to iodine deficiency disorders

Mon, 19/09/2016 - 12:46pm
Desalination can dramatically increase the prevalence of inadequate iodine intake, new research suggests. An estimated 300 million people worldwide rely on over 17,000 desalination plants in 150 countries for water, and the numbers are likely to grow.
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