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Updated: 11 min 25 sec ago
Scientists have developed smart optical measuring devices with companies for uses that include optimization of vehicle engines, reduction and monitoring of environmental emissions, and quality control of pharmaceuticals.
Some years ago, quantum physicists provided experimental proof of Efimov states -- a phenomenon that until then had been known only in theory. Now they have also measured the second Efimov resonance of three particles in an ultracold quantum gas, thus proving the periodicity of this universal physical phenomenon experimentally.
A shortened version of a questionnaire used by psychologists to assess risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder also may help determine the risk of depression and anxiety, according to a study. Given the brevity of the revised Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire -- and its potential for patients -- it could become a useful tool for research as well as treatment of patients and intervention for those who are predisposed toward a number of mental health disorders, a researcher notes.
The discovery of a crucial mechanism that controls the activation of T cells, a blood cell whose primary job is to fight infection in the body, may enable the development of new drugs to treat autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, and similar disorders in which T cells play a major role.
Before a signal even reaches your brain, your fingers can adjust the tension required to lift an object with their tendons. It's a mechanism (fingers) acting as a mind -- a phenomenon called morphological computation that scientists are exploring with tensegrity robots.
Cerebral small-vessel disease and Alzheimer disease pathology appear to be associated, new research indicates. "Our study supports the hypothesis that the pathways of SVD and AD pathology are interconnected. Small-vessel disease could provoke amyloid pathology while AD-associated cerebral amyloid pathology may lead to auxiliary vascular damage," researchers conclude.
A study of Italians who consume a diet rich in resveratrol -- the compound found in red wine, dark chocolate and berries -- finds they live no longer than and are just as likely to develop cardiovascular disease or cancer as those who eat or drink smaller amounts of the antioxidant.
A substantial number of Medicare beneficiaries receive low-value medical services that provide little or no benefit to patients, such as some cancer screenings, imaging, cardiovascular, diagnostic and preoperative testing, and this may reflect a broader overuse of services while accounting for a modest proportion of overall spending.
A low rate of adverse events was associated with male circumcision when the procedure was performed during the first year of life, but the risk was 10 to 20 times higher when boys were circumcised after infancy. "Given the current debate about whether male circumcision should be delayed from infancy to adulthood for autonomy reasons, our results are timely and can help physicians counsel parents about circumcising their sons," the researchers concluded.
Underage male college students who report using marijuana in the month before they were surveyed had a high prevalence of driving under its influence and of riding with a marijuana-using driver, at a rate more than double that of driving or riding after alcohol use, say researchers.
This study provides the first evidence that foreclosed properties may increase neighbors' blood pressure. Neighborhood environment is an important social determinant of cardiovascular health, including blood pressure. The scale of the recent U.S. housing crisis has prompted the public health community to seek a better understanding of how foreclosure activity might impact health. The number of foreclosures spiked in the United States in 2007-10 when more than 6 million homeowners fell behind on their mortgages and banks took ownership of the homes, or foreclosed.
One in three women around the world has experienced physical or sexual violence from a partner. Although domestic violence is associated with a range of adverse health impacts, even after the abuse has ended, it is not easily identified by health care professionals, prompting some countries, notably the United States, to introduce screening programs in healthcare settings. A new study has found no evidence to support domestic violence screening.
Intensive insulin treatment prolonged life by more than 2 years in patients with diabetes after a heart attack, compared with standard treatment for diabetes, a long term follow-up trial has shown. The trial, involving 620 patients with type 2 diabetes, began in 1990. Patients who were admitted to hospital with a suspected heart attack received either intensive insulin treatment, or standard glucose-lowering treatment for one year. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the difference in treatment affected all-cause mortality in the long-term.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: New gene expression mechanism of PRRS virus discovered
Researchers have discovered a new gene expression mechanism in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, or PRRS, virus — an important swine pathogen that costs the U.S. pork industry more than $600 million a year. The discovery provides a new avenue for scientists to explore strategies to control and prevent the disease.
People who are exposed to paint, glue or degreaser fumes at work may experience memory and thinking problems in retirement, decades after their exposure, according to a new study. Researchers assessed the workers' lifetime exposure to chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, and benzene, including the timing of last exposure and lifetime dosage. Benzene is used to make plastics, rubber, dye, detergents and other synthetic materials. Chlorinated solvents can be found in dry cleaning solutions, engine cleaners, paint removers and degreasers. Petroleum solvents are used in carpet glue, furniture polishes, paint, paint thinner and varnish.
Scientists have created a faster, cleaner biofuel refining technology that not only combines processes, it uses widely available materials to reduce costs. They have developed a nanoparticle that is able to perform two processing functions at once for the production of green diesel, an alternative fuel created from the hydrogenation of oils from renewable feedstocks like algae.
Using next generation DNA sequencing, scientists have identified potentially actionable mutations in cancers of the appendix. When specific mutations for a cancer type are identified, patients can be treated with chemotherapy or other targeted agents that work on those mutations. Little is known about the molecular biology of two types of appendix tumors, low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) and adenocarcinoma, but both can lead to pseudomyxoma peritonea (PMP), a critical condition in which cancerous cells grow uncontrollably along the wall of the abdomen and can crush digestive organs.
With an aging population comes an increase in hip and knee joint replacement surgeries, totaling almost one million procedures per year in the United States. To provide better information on the outcomes of these surgeries, help inform patient choice, and improve the quality of the nation's hospitals, a team of researchers has developed a measure for hospitals based on the complications following their patients' hip and knee replacements.
An intricate chain reaction in the body's immune system has been found by researchers who have used the knowledge to develop a new treatment against harmful viruses. Viral pandemics, such as the coronavirus that caused the deadly SARS outbreak in 2002, have caused hundreds of deaths, yet effective anti-viral drugs are rare.
Researchers have identified an alternative to a sometimes toxic therapy that protects frogs in zoos from a deadly fungal infection that has been destroying the amphibian populations worldwide.