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States with a large minority population tend to incarcerate more people, research has concluded. States with large African-American populations are more likely to have harsher incarceration practices, worse conditions of confinement and tougher policies toward juveniles compared with other states. These findings, experts say, provide support for long-standing arguments that the criminal justice system is used as a mechanism for controlling members of the population who are perceived as threats because of race.
Most tumors are only fatal if the cancer cells spread in the body and form secondary tumors, known as metastases, in other organs, such as the liver. Scientists have now shown that increased amounts of a particular protein in the liver create favorable conditions for the implantation of cancer cells and thus for the formation of metastases. The researchers have already succeeded in preventing these processes in an animal model.
Dental anxiety can be so extreme for some patients that a simple cotton swab on the gums makes them flinch. And others, fearful of pain, simply avoid seeing the dentist, according to a new study by dental researchers on when and how to use sedatives during dental procedures.
For scientists probing the electronic structure of materials using RIXS, a persistent question has been how to account for "split peak" spectra seen in some hydrogen-bonded materials, but now researchers have performed an investigation of several types of liquid alcohols with RIXS and brought new perspective to this long-lasting debate. Researchers now show that the split peaks are tied to dynamic motions produced in response to the scattering X-rays themselves.
Scientists have developed a new type of energy-efficient flat light source based on carbon nanotubes with very low power consumption of around 0.1 Watt for every hour’s operation -- about a hundred times lower than that of an LED.
A study of tamper-resistant voting methods revealed that only 58 percent of ballots were successfully cast across three voting systems.
Mapping first-hand experience of extreme weather conditions helps to target climate education efforts. First-hand experience of extreme weather often makes people change their minds about the realities of climate change. That's because people are simply more aware of an extreme weather event the closer they are to its core, and the more intense the incidence is.
When researchers investigated a method to control how DNA moves through a tiny sequencing device, they did not know they were about to witness a display of molecular gymnastics. The researchers found that a positive charge applied to a graphene nanopore speeds up DNA movement, while a negative charge stops the DNA in its tracks. However, the DNA seemed to dance across the graphene surface, pirouetting into sequence-specific shapes they had never seen.
In the context of an aging population, the number of cases of people with multimorbidity, or multiple health conditions, is increasing, creating significant healthcare challenges. Now, the first comprehensive systematic review in this field has found higher levels of multimorbidity in women.
For decades, scientists thought that neurons in the brain were born only during the early development period and could not be replenished. More recently, however, they discovered cells with the ability to divide and turn into new neurons in specific brain regions. Scientists now report that newly formed brain cells in the mouse olfactory system -- the area that processes smells -- play a critical role in maintaining proper connections.
Women who are treated for high blood pressure are not given the same medication as men, nor do they hit the treatment targets as often, reveals new research from Sweden.
Just two hours of extra physical activity each week can improve school performance, researchers report. This has been shown by a study of approximately 2,000 twelve-year-olds.
The climate is getting warmer, the ice sheets are melting and sea levels are rising -- but how much? The report of the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2013 was based on the best available estimates of future sea levels, but the panel was not able to come up with an upper limit for sea level rise within this century. Now researchers have calculated the risk for a worst-case scenario. The results indicate that at worst, the sea level would rise a maximum of 1.8 meters.
Using stents to keep neck arteries open is just as effective as invasive neck surgery for long-term prevention of fatal and disabling strokes, reports an international trial.
Childhood overweight and obesity rates have plateaued in primary school aged children in the Republic of Ireland, reveals new research. The study found that although obesity rates remain high, there is evidence that they have stabilized and may be beginning to fall.
The house fly might be a worldwide pest, but its genome will provide information that could improve our lives. From insights into pathogen immunity, to pest control and decomposing waste, the 691 Mb genome has been sequenced and analyzed by a global consortium of scientists.
Childbirth is physically intense and, for many women, it is the most painful experience they will have. And yet, new research shows that the amount of time a woman spends in labor doesn't seem to impact how she remembers her labor pain afterwards. The research reveals that the peak and end levels of pain women experienced, and whether they received an epidural, impacted their recall of labor pain afterward.
Predicting floods following extreme rainfall in the central Andes is enabled by a new method. Climate change has made these events more frequent and more severe in recent decades. Now complex networks analysis of satellite weather data makes it possible to produce a robust warning system for the first time.
New research provides a better understanding of pancreatic cancer, and may help identify individuals at increased risk. Pancreatic cancer is a stealthy cancer that is usually detected at very late stages and has a 5-year survival rate of less than 5 percent.
Factors behind the resilience of the most common sexually transmitted disease in the US, chlamydia, have been explored through new research. Chlamydia affects an estimated 1 million people who are infected.