Smoking cigarettes alters dozens of genes important for immune defense in epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. These changes likely increase the risk of bacterial infections, viruses, and inflammation. Now, scientists report that e-cigarette use alters hundreds of genes, including the same ones that smoking suppress.
Oxygen is important for the proper function of all human cells, but cancer cells thrive even when deprived of it. Now, researchers have identified a new signaling pathway that helps cancer cells cope with the lack of oxygen found inside tumors.
DNA molecules don't just code our genetic instructions. They also have the unique ability to conduct electricity and self-assemble into well-defined shapes, making them potential candidates for building low-cost nanoelectronic devices. A study now shows how DNA sequences can be manipulated to turn these ribbon-shaped molecules into electron 'highways,' allowing electricity to flow more easily through the strand.
5G has been in the news for years, but it's not available for commercial use just yet. Things will become clearer this week. The Federal Communications Commission will vote on July 14 to decide new rules to identity and open spectrum for next-generation high-speed 5G wireless applications. Reuters reports: FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler said if the FCC "approves my proposal next month, the United States will be the first country in the world to open up high-band spectrum for 5G networks and applications." He said the FCC also will seek comments on opening other high-frequency spectrum bands. Policymakers and mobile phone companies say the next generation of wireless signals needs to be 10 to 100 times faster and be far more responsive to allow advanced technologies like virtual surgery or controlling machines remotely.
A new study begins to clarify how brain structure and chemistry give rise to specific aspects of 'fluid intelligence,' the ability to adapt to new situations and solve problems one has never encountered before.
A meta-analysis of retail return policies may lead businesses to modify their policies to increase sales and reduce returns. The study found that return policies that offer consumers more monetary rewards are likely to increase their consumer purchases.
A phase II clinical trial demonstrated that a new type of treatment for genital herpes, an immunotherapy called GEN-003, may reduce the activity of the virus and the number of days with recurrent herpes. This effect of treatment, given by a series of three injections, appears to last for up to at least one year.
Lychnopholide, a substance isolated from a Brazilian plant, and formulated as part of 'nanocapsules' cured more than half of a group of mice that had been infected experimentally with Chagas disease parasites.
Early mammals evolved in a burst during the Jurassic period, adapting a nocturnal lifestyle when dinosaurs were the dominant daytime predator. How these early mammals evolved night vision to find food and survive has been a mystery, but a new study suggests that rods in the mammalian eye, extremely sensitive to light, developed from color-detecting cone cells during this time to give mammals an edge in low-light conditions.
Estrogens are responsible for the survival and proliferation of tumor cells in 70 percent of breast cancer cases. Nearly a third of the patients develop a resistance to anti-estrogen treatments such as tamoxifen after a few years. Biologists now reveal how tumor cells become refractory to the drug. They succeeded in identifying eight factors involved in the process of resistance to the treatment. The researchers also suggest various approaches for developing new therapies.
Shane McGlaun, reporting for SlashGear:It appears that artists of all sorts are getting very serious about keeping fans from using smartphones while they are at their concerts or events. The latest musician to ban cell phones at her events is Alicia Keys. Fans aren't forced to give up their smartphones at the door to be locked up in some locker or box until the show is over. Rather, fans are handed a special pouch that is locked up with their smartphone inside the fan keeps that pouch with them during the event, but they can't get to the device to call, take photos, or shoot video. If they need to use their device during the show the users can go back to the door and a worker passes a disc about the size of a bagel over the bag to unlock it and the fan can step outside to use their smartphone.
Spotify announced on Monday that it has hit 100 million users on its music streaming service, with over 30 million paid subscribers. The Swedish music company's service rivals with Apple Music, Pandora, and Google's Play Music. Apple's streaming service, which was launched last year, has over 15 million paid customers as of earlier this month. Amazon also reportedly plans to launch its music streaming service later this year. YouTube is also a stop for many music listeners, and so is radio. How do you get your music? Do you still purchase CDs and DVDs? Anyone with a turntable in the audience?
A receptor, first known for its role in mediating the harmful effects of the environmental pollutant dioxin in our body, is now understood to play other important roles in modulating the innate immune response.
Having established that excessive fat tissue can fuel the growth of certain cancers, researchers have turned their attention to the molecular mechanisms involved in the process in the hopes of developing new cancer treatments. Now new research sheds light on the link between obesity and cancer.
The mystery of why most of the most powerful lightning on Earth happens over the oceans isn't solved, but a few of the usual suspects are no longer in custody. It's possible the increased presence of salt in the atmosphere plays a role.
By the year 2100, sea levels might rise as much as 2.5 meters above their current levels, which would seriously threaten coastal cities and other low-lying areas. In turn, this would force animals to migrate farther inland in search of higher ground. But accelerated urbanization, such as the rapidly expanding Piedmont area that stretches from Atlanta to eastern North Carolina, could cut off their escape routes and create climate-induced extinctions.