Proposed Space Telescope Uses Huge Opaque Disk To Surpass Hubble

Slashdot - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:14pm
Required Snark writes NASA has funded a study of a geo-sychrounous orbit telescope that uses a half-mile diameter opaque disk to provide images with 1000 times the resolution of the Hubble. It uses diffraction at the edge of the disk to focus light, resulting in a very high quality image. It's named the Aragoscope, after the scientist Francois Arago, who first noticed how a disk affects light waves. "When deployed the Aragoscope will consist of an opaque disk a half mile in diameter parked in geostationary orbit behind which is an orbiting telescope keeping station some tens to hundreds of miles behind that collects the light at the focal point and rectifies it into a high-resolution image. 'The opaque disk of the Aragoscope works in a similar way to a basic lens,' says CU-Boulder doctoral student and team member Anthony Harness. 'The light diffracted around the edge of the circular disk travels the same path length to the center and comes into focus as an image.' He added that, since image resolution increases with telescope diameter, being able to launch such a large, yet lightweight disk would allow astronomers to achieve higher-resolution images than with smaller, traditional space telescopes."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.








Categories: Science

Proposed Space Telescope Uses Huge Opaque Disk To Surpass Hubble

Slashdot - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:14pm
Required Snark writes NASA has funded a study of a geo-sychrounous orbit telescope that uses a half-mile diameter opaque disk to provide images with 1000 times the resolution of the Hubble. It uses diffraction at the edge of the disk to focus light, resulting in a very high quality image. It's named the Aragoscope, after the scientist Francois Arago, who first noticed how a disk affects light waves. "When deployed the Aragoscope will consist of an opaque disk a half mile in diameter parked in geostationary orbit behind which is an orbiting telescope keeping station some tens to hundreds of miles behind that collects the light at the focal point and rectifies it into a high-resolution image. 'The opaque disk of the Aragoscope works in a similar way to a basic lens,' says CU-Boulder doctoral student and team member Anthony Harness. 'The light diffracted around the edge of the circular disk travels the same path length to the center and comes into focus as an image.' He added that, since image resolution increases with telescope diameter, being able to launch such a large, yet lightweight disk would allow astronomers to achieve higher-resolution images than with smaller, traditional space telescopes."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.








Categories: Science

Proposed Space Telescope Uses Huge Opaque Disk To Surpass Hubble

Slashdot - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:14pm
Required Snark writes NASA has funded a study of a geo-sychrounous orbit telescope that uses a half-mile diameter opaque disk to provide images with 1000 times the resolution of the Hubble. It uses diffraction at the edge of the disk to focus light, resulting in a very high quality image. It's named the Aragoscope, after the scientist Francois Arago, who first noticed how a disk affects light waves. "When deployed the Aragoscope will consist of an opaque disk a half mile in diameter parked in geostationary orbit behind which is an orbiting telescope keeping station some tens to hundreds of miles behind that collects the light at the focal point and rectifies it into a high-resolution image. 'The opaque disk of the Aragoscope works in a similar way to a basic lens,' says CU-Boulder doctoral student and team member Anthony Harness. 'The light diffracted around the edge of the circular disk travels the same path length to the center and comes into focus as an image.' He added that, since image resolution increases with telescope diameter, being able to launch such a large, yet lightweight disk would allow astronomers to achieve higher-resolution images than with smaller, traditional space telescopes."

Read more of this story at Slashdot.








Categories: Science

New Dwarf Planet Ceres Imagery Is Best Yet | Video

Space.com - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:11pm
As NASA's Dawn mission approaches Ceres, it will continue to deliver imagery with better resolution than the last. This current set of images were snapped from 147,000 miles away on Jan. 25th, 2015.
Categories: Science

Low sodium levels increases liver transplant survival benefit in the sickest patients

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:06pm
Researchers report that low levels of sodium in the blood, known as hyponatremia, increase the risk of dying for patients on the liver transplant waiting list. The study showed an increase in survival benefit for patients with hyponatremia and a Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or more. The MELD score measures the risk of death on waiting list. It is calculated using patient’s serum bilirubin, creatinine, and prothrombin time and is used by national organ allocation policy to determine the priority for a patient on the transplant waitlist. Patients who are most sick, with a high MELD score, are at the top of the waitlist.
Categories: Science

Association between parental time pressure, mental health problems among children

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:06pm
Children whose parents experience time pressure are more likely to have mental health problems, a researcher has found. Children's sense of wellbeing largely reflects the circumstances in which their parents find themselves. But few scientific studies have addressed the subject head-on, the author says.
Categories: Science

Researchers find potential anti-cancer use for anti-epilepsy drug

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:06pm
A drug used widely to combat epilepsy has the potential to reduce the growth and spread of breast cancer, scientists have discovered. The team found that "repurposing" antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, that effectively block the sodium channels, could provide a novel therapy for cancer.
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Respiratory chain: Protein complex structure revealed

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:03pm
Mitochondria produce ATP, the energy currency of the body. The driver for this process is an electrochemical membrane potential, which is created by a series of proton pumps. These complex, macromolecular machines are collectively known as the respiratory chain. The structure of the largest protein complex in the respiratory chain, that of mitochondrial complex I, has now been elucidated by scientists.
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Age concern in largest ever study of heroin user deaths

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:03pm
Older users of opioids such as heroin are 27 times more likely to become a victim of homicide than the general population, a study of almost 200,000 users has found. The study is the first to record age trends in opioid users' mortality and the results demonstrate that many health inequalities between users and the general population widen with age.
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New tattoos discovered on iceman Oetzi: All of the skin marks on the mummy mapped

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:02pm
With the aid of a non-invasive photographic technique, researchers at the EURAC-Institute for Mummies and the Iceman have been able to show up all the tattoos on the man who was found preserved in a glacier, and in the process have stumbled upon a previously unknown tattoo on his ribcage. This tattoo is very difficult to make out with the naked eye because his skin has darkened so much over time. The latest sophisticated photographic technology has now enabled tattoos in deeper skin layers to be identified as well.
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How do small birds survive cold winters?

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:01pm
Norway's small birds face many challenges during the winter, including short days and long energy-intensive nights, tough weather conditions and food shortages, along with the risk of becoming a meal for hungry predators. Many at a tiny size, how do they survive?
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Carbon nanoballs can greatly contribute to sustainable energy supply

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:01pm
Researchers have discovered that the insulation plastic used in high-voltage cables can withstand a 26 per cent higher voltage if nanometer-sized carbon balls are added. This could result in enormous efficiency gains in the power grids of the future, which are needed to achieve a sustainable energy system. The renewable energy sources of tomorrow will often be found far away from the end user. Wind turbines, for example, are most effective when placed out at sea. Solar energy will have the greatest impact on the European energy system if focus is on transport of solar power from North Africa and Southern Europe to Northern Europe.
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Decisions on future childbearing in women diagnosed with a meningioma

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:00pm
43% of surveyed female meningioma survivors aged 25--44 yrs stated they were warned that pregnancy was a risk factor for meningioma recurrence. Nevertheless, these women were more likely to want a baby (70% vs 54%) and intend to have a baby (27% vs 12%) than same-age women in the general population.
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MRIs link impaired brain activity to inability to regulate emotions in autism

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:00pm
When it comes to the ability to regulate emotions, brain activity in autistic people is significantly different than brain activity in people without autism. Researchers showed that symptoms including tantrums, irritability, and anxiety have a biological, mechanistic basis.
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Analysis rejects linkage between testosterone therapy, cardiovascular risk

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:00pm
Fears of a link between testosterone replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk are misplaced, according to a review. The therapy has come under widespread scrutiny in recent months, including by a federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) panel convened last fall.
Categories: Science

Blood transfusions during heart surgery increase risk of pneumonia

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:00pm
Patients who receive red blood cell transfusions during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery are at an increased risk of developing pneumonia, researchers report. "Patients should receive red blood cell transfusions based on clinical need," an investigator noted. "Surgical teams may have opportunities to reduce the need for transfusions among patients, thereby reducing the risk of secondary complications."
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Novel simulation model improves training experience for cardiothoracic surgeons

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 3:00pm
A new surgical training model that simulates patient bleeding is providing cardiothoracic surgery residents with “real-life” experience without compromising patient safety, researchers report.
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Unique aortic aneurysm repair shows promise

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 2:59pm
A novel, minimally invasive approach appears safe for treating life-threatening aneurysms that occur in the deepest part of the aorta, making it easier for surgeons to repair the aorta without opening the chest and easier for patients to recover, experts report.
Categories: Science

Drug candidates can block pathway associated with cell death in Parkinson's disease

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 2:59pm
Two drug candidates can target biological pathways involved in the destruction of brain cells in Parkinson's disease, scientists have reported. The studies suggest that it is possible to design highly effective and highly selective (targeted) drug candidates that can protect the function of mitochondria, which provide the cell with energy, ultimately preventing brain cell death.
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Researchers pinpoint two genes that trigger severest form of ovarian cancer

Science Daily - Tue, 27/01/2015 - 2:59pm
Researchers create first mouse model of ovarian clear cell carcinoma using data from human cancer genome atlas. They show how when the genes ARID1A and PIK2CA are mutated in specific ways, the result is ovarian cancer 100 percent of the time. They show that a known drug can suppress tumor growth.
Categories: Science