A global review into the effectiveness of family-based programs has found these programs can be highly effective in stopping children from taking up smoking. "Preventing children from starting to smoke is important to avoid a lifetime of addiction, poor health, and social and economic consequences," said one expert and investigator.
A method to selectively enhance or inhibit optical nonlinearities in a chip-scale device has been developed by scientists. To achieve their result the scientists investigated a specific optical nonlinearity that deals with the interaction between light and sound on chip scale devices.
Common consumer products, including those marketed as 'green,' 'all-natural,' 'non-toxic' and 'organic' emit a range of compounds that could harm human health and air quality, researchers have found. But most of these ingredients are not disclosed to the public.
A good immune system relies on a key 'energy producing' protein in immune cells to develop immunity to vaccines and disease, an international team of scientists has found. The protein, called HuR (human antigen R) is critical for controlling metabolism in B cells, which make antibodies that are essential in fighting infections and in developing long-term immunity after vaccination.
Our smartphones help us find a phone number quickly, provide us with instant directions and recommend restaurants, but new research indicates that this convenience at our fingertips is making it easy for us to avoid thinking for ourselves.
An extraordinary self-regulating heating effect that can be achieved in a particular type of magnetic material may open the doors to a new strategy for hyperthermia cancer treatment, researchers say. "This strong, self-regulated heating effect is unmatched by other materials," an investigator said. "It opens a novel design strategy for realising in vivo hyperthermia therapy."
The eastern coastline of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, a mecca for tourists, may have been walloped by a tsunami between 1,500 and 900 years ago, says a new study. There are several lines of evidence for an ancient tsunami, foremost a large, wedge-shaped berm about 15 feet above sea level paved with washing machine-sized stones, said the researchers. Set back in places more than a quarter of a mile from shore, the berm stretches for at least 30 miles, alternating between rocky headlands and crescent beaches as it tracks the outline of the Caribbean coast near the plush resorts of Playa del Carmen and Cancun.
Take a wild, common forest-dwelling mouse-like rodent, known as a vole, and subject it to 13 rounds of selection for increased aerobic exercise metabolism, and what do you get? A mighty 'mouse' with a 48 percent higher peak rate of oxygen consumption and an increased basal metabolic rate, compared to unselected controls. Scientists have used an evolution technique that has gained popularity, dubbed 'evolve and resequence,' to measure the genetic changes that pushed the humble vole to Olympian levels of performance.
Those with painful diabetic neuropathy who received two low dose rounds of a non-viral gene therapy called VM202 had significant improvement of their pain that lasted for months, researchers report. "Right now there is no medication that can reverse neuropathy," the study's first author said. "Our goal is to develop a treatment. If we can show with more patients that this is a very real phenomenon, then we can show we have not only improved the symptoms of the disease, namely the pain, but we have actually improved function."
A better understanding of the stomach's immune response to Helicobater pylori infection could lead to new therapies targeting damage in the stomach, report researchers.
Despite growing enthusiasm among educators and scholars about the potential of school-based executive function interventions to significantly increase student achievement, a federally funded meta-analysis of 25 years' worth of research finds no conclusive evidence that developing students' executive function skills leads to better academic performance, according to a new study.
A team of anthropology researchers has found significant differences in facial features between all seven pre-Columbian peoples they evaluated from what is now Peru -- disproving a longstanding perception that these groups were physically homogenous. The finding may lead scholars to revisit any hypotheses about human migration patterns that rested on the idea that there was little skeletal variation in pre-Columbian South America.
Older brains may be more similar to younger brains than previously thought. In a new paper, researchers demonstrate that previously reported changes in the aging brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging may be due to vascular (or blood vessels) changes, rather than changes in neuronal activity itself.
There was no link between 10 billion pound pay-for-performance incentive scheme aimed at GP's and a reduction in premature deaths, an English study has concluded. "If this incentive scheme and others like it around the world are to continue, more attention needs to be paid to ensure that the performance indicators are more closely aligned to evidence for mortality reduction," the first author warns.
A pro-vegetarian diet that emphasizes a higher proportion of plant-based foods compared to animal-based foods may help lower the risks of dying from heart disease and stroke by up to 20 percent, according to a large-scale study. Researchers suggest that substituting some of the meat in your diet with vegetables may be a simple way to lower the risk of heart-related death.
Physicists have gained new insights into dark energy and the theory of gravitation by analyzing data from the "Planck" satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Their results demonstrate that the standard model of cosmology remains an excellent description of the universe. Yet when the Planck data is combined with other astronomical observations, several deviations emerge. Further studies must determine whether these anomalies are due to measurement uncertainties or undiscovered physical correlations, which would also challenge Einstein's theory of gravitation. Thus, the analysis of the Planck data gives major impetus for research during future space missions.
Researchers at the ULB – IRIBHM and ULB Neuroscience Institute – have tested the therapeutic potential of cortical neurons generated at the laboratory, by transplantation in the brains of adult mice. Their research is published in the journal Neuron1.
Weight loss surgery does not stunt the growth of obese children when applied within a clinical pathway. It is a safe option to use and provides hope for youngsters who are unable to shed pounds through weight management programs that include counseling and lifestyle changes, experts report.
Simple sideline test shown effective in diagnosing concussion in student athletes as young as 5 years old
An easy-to-administer vision test has shown effective in diagnosing concussion in student athletes as young as 5 years old, researchers report.
Chemists have developed a computational approach for determining the viability and suitability of complex molecular structures -- an advancement that could aid in the development of pharmaceuticals as well as a range of other materials.